Yada’ Yah
Volume 7: The Last Days
...Deceit, Destruction, and Death
Chywah – Beast
The Time of the Beast...

Continued from Part 1...

There is a myth, one promoted by Christians, that they were persecuted all across the Roman Empire and throughout this entire period of time – from Nero to Constantine’s Edict of Milan. Their alleged willingness to die as martys rather than recant their faith has been shown as proof that the religion was worth more than life itself – an extrapolation so lame it is replayed by Muslims each and every day.

Exposing this myth is important because Christian apologists will claim in rebuttal to the testimony I’ve laid before you to demonstrate that the religion would not have survived had the culture not been prepared for its duplicity, that Christianity could not have grown out of Rome because Romans persecuted Christians. But as we shall soon see, the “Great Persecution” of Christians by Rome is a myth.

In reality, Jews were persecuted viciously, consistently, and ubiquitously, but seldom Christians. Most lived in peace, were able to engage in any profession, and could hold high political office throughout the Empire during the first four centuries of the modern era. It was only in the city of Rome during a three-year period that Christians were executed as a result of an Imperial decree. In other words, the “Great Persecution” is grossly exaggerated, as was most Roman history during this time.

The fact remains that the relatively few Christians who were persecuted, brought the condition upon themselves. They agitated the populous with their strange adaptation of prior pagan traditions – twisting the fabric of societal lore. They were accused of cannibalism as a result of the Church’s twisted corruption of Passover, whereby a “Last Supper” became a “Eucharist” and otherwise meaningful metaphors became the body and blood of their god. They were suspected of incest when they referred to members of the all-encompassing cult rather than Covenant as “brothers and sisters.” And then there was the disdain over the Oedipus complex, whereby Christians began showing an abnormal affection for the Mother of God and Queen of Heaven. Also following the advice of bishops, Christians were encouraged to offer themselves up for punishment, thus becoming voluntary martys to demonstrate that they were committed to the faith. This is like Imams influencing children to become suicide bombers in Allah’s cause.

An example of the latter comes from a Spanish council held at the beginning of the 4th century, where the bishops denied the “crown of martyrdom” to those who died while attacking pagan temples. The provocation elicited the response. Further, this demonstrates that Christians resorted to violence, physically assaulting Roman institutions rather than condemning them with words.

There was absolutely no basis to prosecute Christians prior to Decius in 250 CE, and since the party bringing an inadequate case lost their assets, there were few occurrences of malicious prosecution. As evidence of this, in 112 CE, Pliny the Younger, the Roman governor of Bithynia-Pontus in modern Turkey, just north of Paul’s hometown, wrote a letter to Emperor Trajan, asking him how to deal with Christians who were being anonymously accused. Pliny states that if accused Christians simply state that they are innocent of committing a crime, they are exonerated. He states that Christianity is “a depraved, yet otherwise harmless, excessive superstition.” Trajan’s reply affirms that there was no official edict against the religion or systematic persecution as has been subsequently alleged. At the time, Christians were not sought out for harsh treatment based upon Imperial orders.

This condition changed, albeit briefly for a few individuals, when Decius ordered everyone in the presence of a magistrate to burn a wick of incense to the Roman gods and to the well-being of the Emperor. The edict was not directed at Christians, and it was not contemplated to impact any faith. Its sole purpose was to affirm a subject’s loyalty to the Empire, not unlike the Pledge of Allegiance in the United States or the Profession of Faith required of Roman Catholics. So while some small number of Christians were put to death for failing to comply, far more saw the edict as a national oath and played along. They in turn were declared apostates, not by Rome, but by fellow believers who sent them into exile.

So that we don’t make too much of the religious concerns over the Roman Pledge of Allegiance, Christians comprise the majority of American politicians and military and they all swear a public oath to support and defend the U.S. Constitution. Most all American children pledge their allegiance to the United States every morning as part of their “education.” Most every public gathering, including sporting events, are festooned with flags and initiated with a military procession and patriotic songs. New American citizens, the majority of whom are Christians, all raise their right hand and vow their loyalty to the nation and for what it stands.

Like so many other Emperors and religious reformers, Decius wanted to revive Rome’s Golden Age, which is why he added Trajan’s name to his own. He reinvigorated the office of Censor, consistent with imposing Political Correctness in American society, and then he restored the Coliseum as a source of entertainment and national pride. There is no indication that attendance before the magistrate was ever checked. And within a year, the edict was brushed aside and no longer enforced. The few who were executed at this time chose their fate, having had to make a public spectacle of their refusal to light a wick of incense for Rome while burning thousands for their pagan Trinity in an attempt to gain fame as a martyr. Christianity became such a death cult, Arrius Antoninus, the Roman Proconsul of Asia, when confronted with a large group of voluntary martyrs, tossed them some ropes and berated them, saying, “You wretches, if you want to die, you have cliffs to leap from and ropes to hang yourselves by.”

What Christians refer to as the “Great Persecution” occurred between 303 to 312 CE. During this time on orders from the Emperor, some Christian churches and texts were destroyed, and in some places the religion was declared illegal. Christians who refused to make their religion a private matter lost some standing in the law. In some provinces, Christian clergy were arrested. And while there was another edict, ordering Roman citizens to pledge their allegiance to Rome, there was no penalty for refusing the command.

Given the leeway by Rome to do so, most governors ignored the edict because they wanted to minimize the likelihood of a revolt. For example, Lucius Lactantius (240 to 320 CE), a Christian author during this time and later an advisor to Emperor Constantine, reported, “There were Governors who shed no Christian blood and who turned a blind eye to evasions of the edict, enforcing it only when absolutely necessary. And when they were afforded the opportunity to provide clemency for incarcerated Christians, they did so eagerly.” It is interesting that Lactantius, while duped by replacement theology, thereby replacing Yisra’el with Rome, the Church, and Christian saints, was fascinated by prophecy and recognized that there would be a millennial period beginning in year 6000 when God would abide on earth.

Roman Governors were specifically tasked with keep their assigned province “pacata atque quieta – settled and orderly,” which is to say, placated, quiet, and not rebellious. He knew that if riots broke out in his province, he’d be the first person Rome would execute. So most Governors appeased Christians instead of persecuting them. Once Rome finally made a distinction between Judaism and Christianity around 96 CE, requiring adherents of the former to pay an onerous tax in abject humility while not charging the other, the religion was seen by most as a corrupting superstition, and thus as a source of ridicule for being incongruous with Roman society. And in that day, a superstition was thought “to be highly corrosive, disturbing a man’s mind in such a way that he becomes insane, losing his humanity.” (L.F. Janssen, Superstition and the Persecution of the Christians, Vigilse Christianae, Volume 33, Page 138) So long as superstition is equated to religion, this remains true of every religion throughout time. 

Roman political leaders were also public cult leaders, and thus tasked with the responsibility of promoting a religious affinity. In Rome, like most of Europe thereafter, the social and political well-being of the state was predicated upon the society being overtly religious. Traditions became the substance of patriotism, and patriotism was the glue of compliance.

Recognizing that there was no persecution of Christians under Nero, Domitian, Trajan, Hadrian, Aurelius, or Thracian, and relatively insignificant persecution under Decius and Valerian apart from those who sought to be martyrs, we arrive at the time of Diocletian and Galerius. But even then, over the first fifteen years of his reign, Diocletian didn’t impose any edict directed at any religion. It wasn’t until Diocletian purged the army of Christians because of their unwillingness to swear an oath of allegiance, and surrounded himself with Roman conservatives and religious fundamentalists, that a shift occurred. He like so many before him wanted to restore the perceived luster of a rapidly crumbling Empire, and this always entailed a religious reformation combined with bloodletting as some purported foe was subjugated. Galerius led the charge against the cult of Christianity for obvious reasons. They were easy prey as willing martyrs and it, and there were no longer any Christians in the army to object.

As we discovered previously, Diocletian was wary of Galerius’s advice so he consulted the oracle of Apollo for guidance. And while the representative of Zeus’s legendary son in the Greek pantheon was predicable, what’s interesting is that Diocletian never ordered an oath of alliance or established an edict requiring the recognition of any Roman god. Nonetheless, a general persecution was initiated at Galerius’s direction in 303 CE. But outside of Rome, and the immediate reach of the empowered religious fundamentalists, there were no avid participants. And some Governors, like Constantius, were wholly unenthusiastic. And his son, Constantine, reversed the order three years later in 306 CE, restoring every religion except Judaism, and therefore Christianity, to full legal standing within the Empire. And even the ultimate affirmation of that decision is grossly misrepresented by Christians. Constantine’s Edict of Milan in 313 CE didn’t mention Christianity and most certainly didn’t make the Pauline faith the official religion of Rome. But just as Christianity had become a blend of every faith, every god and religion were now considered acceptable.

The vast preponderance of Christians were unharmed during the three years of persecution. The “Cult of Martyrs” in the centuries which followed gave rise to greatly exaggerated accounts of barbarism. Like most everything Christian, the facts became irrelevant, as was historical authenticity. It was religious propaganda, not unlike modern nations presenting fallen warriors as heroes, expecting citizens to cherish the political institution for which they were said to have sacrificed their lives. The implication became: if they were willing to die for the nation, then that nation is more valuable than anyone’s life.

In the twisted and corrupted minds of these religious fanatics, the earliest martyrs won fame, became admired, and then were designated saints, motivating others to imitate them. This perverted attitude was so widespread modern historians have tried to distinguish between solicited martyrdom and actual persecution, and yet without any reliable evidence everyone is left to speculate based upon one propagandist account. The estimates for total number of actual martyrs during the “Great Persecution” depend entirely upon the report of Eusebius of Caesarea in his Martyrs of Palestine. There are no other viable sources nor records from any other Roman province. And during this time, Eusebius was the Bishop of Caesarea Maritima, the capital of Roman “Palestine,” – if we are to use Hadrian’s, and now Christian, pejorative.

Under Roman law, capital punishment could only be imposed by the Governor of the Province. These governors would typically in residence in the capital, making the location were the provincial records were maintained coterminous with the site of most all executions. Exceptions to this rule were also publicized throughout the province because they required the Governor to travel to other cities, where he was always accompanied by a large entourage intending to engage in predetermined and publicly announced business. But yet no Roman records have been found, which is peculiar since Romans celebrated their subjugation of those they considered inferior with tributes and monuments. There is nothing to attest to Christian persecution beyond fabled tales of saintly heroism produced by the Roman Catholic clergy and this account by Eusebius of Caesarea, a Christian Bishop in Yisra’el.

Eusebius wrote: “Such were the martyrdoms which took place at Caesarea during the entire period of the persecution.” And then, addressing the executions at Phaeno, he said, “These martyrdoms were accomplished in Palestine during eight complete years; and of this description was the persecution in our time,” followed by a list of names on each occasion. Demonstrating his religious predilection for Roman mythology, Eusebius began his book by announcing that it would be “about those who suffered martyrdom in Palestine.” He went on to say, “It is meet, then, that the conflicts which were illustrious in various districts should be committed to writing by those who dwelt with the combatants in their districts. But for me, I pray that I may be able to speak of those with whom I was personally conversant, and that they may associate me with them – those in whom the whole people of Palestine glories, because even in the midst of our land, the Savior of all men arose like a thirst-quenching spring. The contests, then, of those illustrious champions I shall relate for the general instruction and profit.” Martyrdom was considered glorious by these Christians, just as it is by today’s Muslims. And both religious adherents are as prone to lie as they are to die.

 Rome’s proven propensity for propaganda and revisionist history, particularly during the rise of Christianity, ought to jolt Christians into the realization that their church fathers did the same thing regarding the Christian mischaracterization of “Jesus Christ.” Every historical portrait painted by the Roman Catholic Church is inaccurate, shaped by clerics who consistently wove a web of lies.

The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Church have grown to become the living legacy of Rome that is accused in Dany’el’s prophecy of trampling the whole world while giving rise to the Beast. In this regard, the Christian trend toward duplicity is troubling, especially since the religion is based entirely on revisionist history. It grew by popularizing a false reality – one which has “Jesus Christ” emerging out of the Greco-Roman culture and the pagan legacy of Dionysus. Those who followed in Paul’s footsteps were similarly duplicitous.

The evidence is clear: Rome created Christianity.

As the Empire continued to wage war on itself, inflicting a plethora of self-imposed wounds while wallowing in all manner of perverted and murderous schemes, the new religion flourished. By the time of Constantine’s rise from General to Emperor, it had become a more powerful force than Roman politics or its military. This is why the warring General feigned allegiance to the budding faith while pursuing his quest for military victory over fellow Romans in pursuit of the throne.

Eusebius, his propagandist, composed the myth which marked the moment when Constantine allied with Paul’s religion: “While marching at midday, he saw with his own eyes in the heavens a trophy of the cross arising from the light of the sun, carrying the message, ‘In Hoc Signo Vinces – With this Sign, you will Conquer.’” The Christian apologist also fantasized: “In his war against Maxentius, the sign Chi (X) traversed by Rho (P), a symbol representing the first two letters of the Greek spelling of the word, Chrestus (later changed to Christos and then Christ), was emblazoned on helmets and shields to commemorate the type of solar halo caused by the ‘sun dog’ meteorological phenomenon.” This was conceived to mimic Sha’uwl’s encounter with the light on the road to Damascus, and for similar result. But there is no corroboration of either encounter. And both men were prone to lie.

In fact, Eusebius demonstrated that he cannot be trusted because he provided us with two, completely conflicting accounts of what did or did not occur. In his first, there is no mention of a vision or even of a sign or audible message. And in the second, Eusebius’s testimony is incompatible with Constantine’s whereabouts prior to the deciding battle.

So while there is no evidence whatsoever that General Constantine saw a pagan cross silhouetted before the guise of his god, the Unconquerable Sun, or heard a voice telling him to conquer, should it have happened, the savagery exhibited thereafter by Constantine and his soldiers should have been sufficient to demonstrate to rational individuals that this encounter could not have been with Yahowsha’. The purported blending of religion with military brutality in the midst of political ambition and patriotic lore, haunts mankind to this day. Most armies march to religious music and have been beguiled into fighting by claims that they are doing God’s bidding. Ever since this day, it has been “Onward Christian Soldiers, marching as to war!”

Constantine’s inhuman behavior, much of which was chronicled in the previous chapter, was followed by the Edict of Milan, whereby any Roman could worship any deity of their choosing – so long as they weren’t Jews. While it is erroneously believed by many that the Edict only concerned itself with Christianity, making it the official religion of the Empire, those suppositions are wholly inaccurate – as is most everything perceived to be true from this time. It wasn’t until Theodosius that Pauline Christianity would be imposed on every Roman.

The Edict of Milan reads: “When I, Constantine Augustus, as well as I, Licinius Augustus, fortunately met near Mediolanurn (Milan), and were considering everything that pertained to the public welfare and security, we thought, among other things which we saw would be for the good of many, those regulations pertaining to the reverence of the Divinity ought certainly to be made first, so that we might grant to the Chrestuaneos [later changed to Christians] and others full authority to observe that religion which each preferred; whence any Divinity whatsoever in the seat of the heavens may be propitious and kindly disposed to us and all who are placed under our rule.”

Constantine’s words were the antithesis of Yahowah’s. These men were advocates of all religions while God remains in opposition to every religion. Although, in reality, this was all about Christianity because it was at this time that Christianity became an amalgamation of every religion to appease every man.

The Edict of Milan further restricted Jews, limiting what they could own, what they could say, where they could go, and whom they could circumcise. But it didn’t have to say much about Yahowah’s Chosen People. That damage had already been done by Hadrian. His edits outlawing the Torah, circumcision, Hebrew, Yisra’el, the Shabat, and the Miqra’ey were still inscribed as part of Roman Law. Yahowah’s Chosen People were put in a horrid situation: observe the Torah and die.

While Constantine and most of his Legionnaires remained devoted to the supremacy of Mithras, whereby the sun was considered god, the General turned Emperor became Pontifex Maximus – a title previous Caesars bore as heads of the pagan priesthood. It is the same title that is bequeathed upon Roman Catholic Pope’s today – which is stunning when one considers Yahowsha’s admonition not to call anyone on earth “Father.”

Further, noting the general’s, emperor’s, and pope’s propensity for duplicity, we should not be surprised that among the most famous buildings erected during Constantine’s reign included the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem in addition to the Old Saint Peter’s Basilica in what is now the Vatican.

But that was not the end of it. On March 7th, 321 CE, Constantine decreed that Christians and other pagans “of all trades should rest on the Venerable Day of the Sun.” It was an order designed to enforce the sun-god religion Emperor Aurelian had established as the official cult or the Roman Empire.

The following day, Constantine enacted another edict, this one stating that soothsayers were officially accepted throughout Rome. His official coinage continued to carry the symbols of the sun as the principle deity. Constantine dedicated his new capital of Constantinople, which became the seat of Byzantine Christianity for a millennium, wearing robes and a crown of Apollo. This deplorable realization was affirmed with these words: “Constantine sent to the Legions, to be recited upon Sunday, the Lord’s Day, a form of prayers which could have been employed by a worshipper of Mithras or Apollo as well as by the Christian. This was the official sanction of the old custom of addressing a prayer to the rising sun.” (Duruy, Victor, History of Rome, Volume 7, page 489)

According to Eusebius, Constantine in council with the bishop of Rome, declared: “The Logos has transformed by the New Alliance the celebration of Sabbath to the rising of the light [to the arrival of the sun god]. He has given us a type of the true rest in the saving day of the Lord [Satan’s name according to Yahowah], the first day of light [Sunday, the first day of the week].... In this day of light – the first day and the true day of the sun [Sunday] – when we gather after the interval of six days, we celebrate the holy and spiritual Sabbaths.... All things whatsoever that were prescribed for the Sabbath, we have transferred them to the Lord’s Day, as being more authoritative and more highly regarded and first in rank, and more honorable than the Jewish Sabbath. In fact, it is on the day of the creation of the world that God said, ‘Let there be light and there was light.’ It is also on this day that the Sun of Justice has risen for our souls.” (Eusebius, Commentary on the Psalms, Psalm 91, in Patrologie Cursus Completus, edited by J.P. Migne, page 23)

This “New Alliance” was the fusion between Christianity and its New Testament with the Roman Empire and its religious traditions. Rather than being rooted in the Torah, this is how the Shabat became Sunday for Christians beguiled by the Church of Rome. It demonstrates the manner in which Christianity was impregnated with such an overwhelming degree of sun-god imagery and customs, from Sunday Worship and Crosses, to Christmas and Easter, from halos and church steeples to the Trinity and its dying and resurrected god.

Shortly thereafter, Constantine used his position as Emperor and Pope to resolve the religious dispute over Arianism and the nature of the Christian god. During the Council of Nicaea (named after the Greek god of Victory) in 325, Arius’s accurate understanding of the relationship between Yahowsha’ and Yahowah was declared heresy at this meeting so that the new religion of Christianity could create its own god, one modeled after the Greco-Roman Dionysus. Especially relevant, Constantine and his Church reinforced the change of the Sabbath to Sunday in conjunction with issuing a prohibition against Passover. Christians would now substitute: “the Lord’s Supper on the day before the Jewish Passover to break Christianity away from Judaic tradition.” The pagan celebration of Easter was promoted in its place, becoming accepted among Christians, while Pesach, Matsah, and Bikuwrym were declared illegal. At the behest of the Beast, Satan achieved a debilitating victory.

Shortly thereafter, and in complete accord with the predictions found in Dany’el, Rome’s Julian Calendar, a solar-based accounting of time, was given precedence over the lunar system prescribed by the Torah throughout the Roman Empire. This was done principally to separate Easter from Passover. “It was declared improper to follow the custom of the Jews in the celebration of this holy festival, because, their hands having been stained with crime, the minds of these wretched men are necessarily blinded. Let us, then, have nothing in common with the Jews, who are our adversaries, avoid all contact with that evil way. After having compassed the death of the Lord, being out of their minds, they are guided not by sound reason, but by unrestrained passion. Wherever their innate madness carries them, they are a people utterly depraved. Therefore, this irregularity must be corrected, in order that we may no more have any thing in common with those parricides and the murderers of our Lord.” (Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Volume 3, pages 18-20)

Not only do we find the Babylonian Easter replacing the observance of Yahowah’s Passover, Un-Yeasted Bread, and Firstborn Children, this edict made it illegal to be Torah observant. At this point, at this moment in time, by this declaration, what had been a theory is now confirmed. Rome made Christianity possible. Had it not been for the Empire’s overt hostility to everything God values, it would have been impossible for a religion so out of sync with the life of its supposed savior to have taken root and grow. The three days Yahowsha’ came to fulfill were considered criminal by those beguiled into believing that they were following Him. The claims of Eusebius are so preposterous, so revolting, so ungodly, it’s a wonder that with this information available today in a free society that there is a single adherent to this bewildering faith. But then again, if we have learned anything along the way, it is that religious devotees are seldom influenced by evidence or reason.

Eusebius was an extraordinarily vile man, but he was not unique among Roman Clerics. For example, consider Saint John Chrysostom. He became Archbishop of Constantine’s Constantinople in 397 CE, a position he held until his death in 407 CE. He was among Rome’s most influential Christian authors and preachers. And yet his anti-Semitic “Oraiones Adversus JudaeosHomilies Against the Jews” claims that “Constantine ordered that all Jews should have their ears cut off as a sign of their treason and that they should be exiled.”

The written legacy from this period demonstrates that from Hadrian to Constantine and thereafter under Theodosius, the Roman Empire and its Catholic Church became Yahowah’s most perverted adversary. As further evidence, Hilary of Potieres spoke of the Jews as “a people who had always persisted in iniquity and out of its abundance of evil glorified in wickedness.” (Fred Gladston Bratton, The Crime of Christendom, Boston, Beacon Press, 1969, page 12) Saint Ambrose (340 to 397 CE), another esteemed Church Father, and the Archbishop of Milan, defended a fellow bishop for burning a synagogue at Callinicum by asking: “who cares if a synagogue – home of insanity and unbelief – is destroyed?” (Ibid, 83) Archbishop Ambrose, as a staunch opponent of Arianism, not only overtly promoted the persecution of Jews, even today he is considered one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century. He is also noted for his influence on Saint Augustine. (Please note: I convey the title “Saint” with all proper disgust.)

Ambrose, the son of the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, was educated in Rom, studying Greco-Roman literature, law, and rhetoric. As a young man, he was appointed to the political post of Consular Prefect / Governor of Liguria and Emilia in Northern Italy. His capital was Milan – not only the most important city in the Western Empire at the time, but also its capital. He held this political post until he was promoted to Bishop of Milan. That in itself speaks volumes about what the Roman Empire had become. Although he never married, he was a leading figure and advisor in the court of Emperor Valentinian.

The most crucial and defining moment of his life occurred during his transition from politician to cleric as a result of the schism in the Diocese of Milan between Catholics and Arians. The Arian Bishop of Milan, Auxentius, died. And as other Arians (defined as those who correctly recognized that Yahowsha’ was a diminished manifestation of Yahowah as opposed to a distinct and wholly different persona representing the totality of god) tried to replace him with someone equally enlightened, Governor Ambrose spoke so passionately on behalf of the Catholics, the politician with no theological training became Bishop. But within a week he was baptized, ordained, and then duly consecrated to the religious office. His opening salvo was to write at treatise promoting “The Goodness of Death.” Next, he turned on those he had beguiled with his words, immediately, forcefully, and viciously ridding Milan of Arianism in favor of Catholicism because such positions were incompatible with the religion and officially defined orthodoxy conceived and promulgated at the Counsel of Nicaea with their Nicaean / Victorious Creed. And this is what endeared they upstart cleric and subsequent saint to Theodosius – the Emperor who imposed Nicaean Christianity as Catholicism upon all of his subjects, creating the basis of Feudal Fascism and instigating the thousand-year reign of cleric and king.

It is interesting to note that Archbishop Ambrose indulged Emperor Theodosius with what is perhaps the first recorded Roman Catholic indulgence. Initially, Saint Ambrose excommunicated Pope Theodosius for massacring 7,000 innocent civilians in Thessalonica in a fit of rage. But after a couple of months of “penance and repentance,” as well as a dutiful donation, the mass murdering head of the Church was readmitted to the Eucharist by the Archbishop in a ode to power rather than lives.

But there was more to this man than the politics of religion and his animosity to the actual nature and identity of Yahowsha’. He was a raging Anti-Semite. In an address to young Christians, he forbade them to marry Jews (oddly chronicled in the book “De Abrahamo – Of Abraham,” Volume IX, Page 84). And he would wrongly write: “The Jews feared to believe in manhood taken up into God, and therefore have lost the grace of redemption, because they reject that on which salvation depends.” (Ambrose, Exposition of the Christian Faith, Book III, The Catholic Encyclopedia)

Then in the aforementioned defense of the Catholic Bishop of Callincium in Mesopotamia, after a mob led by the Bishop and a mob of Monks destroyed the local synagogue, when Emperor Theodosius ordered the rebuilding of the synagogue at the expense of the clerics, Ambrose immediately protested. His letter to Theodosius begins: “The glory of God is concerned in this matter, and so therefore I cannot remain silent. Shall the bishop be compelled to resurrect a synagogue? Can he religiously do this thing? If he obeys the emperor, he will become a traitor to his religion; if he disobeys him, a martyr. What real wrong is there, after all, in destroying a synagogue, a ‘home of treacherously disloyal and duplicitous betrayal, a home of impiety,’ in which Christ is daily blasphemed? Indeed, he must consider himself no less guilty than this poor bishop; at least to the extent that he made no concealment of his wish that all synagogues should be destroyed, that no such places of blasphemy be further allowed to exist.” (Ambrose, Epistolae - Letters, Volumes XL and XVI) At the end, he succeeded in obtaining from Theodosius a promise that the order to rebuild the synagogue at clerical expense would be completely revoked. The consequence was full immunity for those who would torch synagogues anywhere in the Empire.

This Roman Governor, Catholic Archbishop, Saint, politician, and theologian defines his time and place in history. His character is characteristic of the Empire and Church of Rome. The popularity and influence of his perverted and ungodly positions, rank Ambrose with the likes of Augustine, Jerome, and Gregory, as one of the Father of the Catholic Church. Theologians compare him with Hilary, who they claim fell short of Ambrose’s administrative excellence theological brilliance. His clerical successor, Saint Augustine, whose writings were influenced by Ambrose’s sermons, said that he owed more to him than to any writer except Paul. The wolf in sheep’s clothing now had a pack.

Gregory of Nyssa (331-396 CE), another Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bishop turned venerated Saint provided the following indictment of early Constantinian Christianity by further besmirching Yahowah’s Chosen: “Slayers of the Lord, murderers of the prophets, adversaries of God, men who show contempt for the Law, foes of grace, enemies of their fathers' faith, advocates of the Devil, brood of vipers, slanderers, scoffers, men whose minds are in darkness, leaven of the Pharisees, assembly of demons, sinners, wicked men, stoners, and haters of righteousness.” (Oratiu in Christi: Resurrectionem: XV, page 553, Europe and the Jews, Boston: Beacon Press, 1961, page 26) This demonic cleric in noted for more than his repulsive rhetoric. He is said to have made significant contributions to the Doctrine of the Trinity and the Nicene Creed.

The most savage attacks on Jews by a Church Father are found in the Homilies of Archbishop John Chrysostom, first narrated in his Antioch sermons. This Saint is considered to be among the most beloved and admired in Church history. His name translates in Greek as Saint John the Golden Mouthed. His discourses were designed to prohibit Christians from engaging in friendly discussions with Jews, from visiting Jewish homes, and from attending their synagogues. Chrysostom preached: “The Jews sacrifice their children to Satan.... They are worse than wild beasts. The synagogue is a brothel, a den of scoundrels, the temple of demons devoted to idolatrous cults, a criminal assembly of Jews, a place of meeting for the assassins of Christ, a house of ill fame, a dwelling of iniquity, a gulf and abyss of perdition.” (Fred Gladston Bratton, The Crime of Christendom, Boston, Beacon Press, 1969, page 83-4; Chrysostoms, Volume VIII, Homilies Against the Jews, Patrologia Graeca, Paris: Garnier, 1857, page 843)

If that wasn’t enough to enshrine his sorry soul to an eternity in hell, this paradigm of Roman Catholic ethics, further proclaimed: “The Jews have fallen into a condition lower than the vilest animal. Debauchery and drunkenness have brought them to the level of the lusty goat and the pig. They know only one thing: to satisfy their stomachs, to get drunk, to kill, and beat each other up like stage villains and coachmen.” (Ibid, 844) And then: “The synagogue is a curse, obstinate in her error, she refuses to see or hear, she has deliberately perverted her judgment; she has extinguished with herself the light of the Holy Spirit.” (Ibid, 845) Hopefully you have disassociated yourself from this man’s religion.

Saint Chrysostom surmised that the Jews had become a degenerate race because of their “odious assassination of Christ for which crime there is no expiation possible, no indulgence, no pardon, and for which they will always be a people without a nation, enduring a servitude without end.” (Ibid, 846) While it would be religious to let the facts get in the way of a good story, it was actually his fellow Romans who crucified Yahowsha’.

The “greatest preacher in the early church” and saintly bastion of Roman and Christian sensibilities elaborated on what he perceived to be his god’s punishment of the hated Jews: “But it was men, says the Jew, who brought these misfortunes upon us, not God. On the contrary, it was in fact God who brought them about. If you attribute them to men, reflect again that even supposing men had dared, they could not have had the power to accomplish them, unless it had been God’s will.... Men would certainly not have made war unless God had permitted them.... Is it not obvious that it was because God hated you and rejected you once for all?” (Ibid, 848) With words this charming and oratory this soaring, I suspect the pews were stuffed to overflowing to listen to such highly rational and overtly loving Christian rhetoric.

On another occasion the Archbishop of Constantinople admits, “I hate the Jews because they violate the Law. I hate the synagogue because it has the Law and the prophets. It is the duty of all Christians to hate the Jews.” (Ibid, 850) Is it any wonder Yahowah despises Christianity, viewing those who promote the religion as they have chosen to view Yahuwdym and His Towrah? And lest I forget, apart from his sermons, the Saint and Archbishop is best known for his methodical and linear evaluation of Paul’s epistles.

The primary purpose of Chrysostom’s blatant anti-Semitism was to prevent Christians from participating in what he perceived to be “Jewish customs, festivals, and observances.” Therefore, he was doing Satan’s bidding by prohibiting Christians from answering Yahowah’s invitation to attend Passover, Un-Yeasted Bread, Firstborn Children, and the Promise of Seven, thereby excluding them from the Covenant and its benefits, including salvation. Further distancing himself and the faithful from God, he railed against the Shabbat and circumcision.

John Chrysostom’s Roman Catholic Homilies have been quoted in seminaries for centuries. His diatribes are considered model sermons. His wholly irrational, irresponsible, and irreverent perspective on God’s Chosen People and His Torah have poisoned succeeding generations of theologians and their parishioners. As one of the most revered Church Fathers, his jaundiced and ungodly diatribes have been embraced throughout Christendom. The nineteenth century Protestant cleric R. S. Storr called him “one of the most eloquent preachers who ever since apostolic times have brought to men the divine tidings of truth and love.” Evidently, insanity is contagious, and it is passed from one person to another through words. A contemporary of Storr, the acclaimed theologian, John Henry Cardinal Newman, described Chrysostom as a “bright, cheerful, gentle soul, with a sensitive heart.” To his credit, perhaps he is brightening the darkness of hell today, cheering up those he beguiled, just as the condescending scowl on his statue in Saint Patrick’s Cathedral in New York City stains the souls of all who enter.

Given a receptive culture in which to grow in Rome under Constantine and Chrysostom, the vicious and intolerant, politicized religion of Pauline Christianity gained the upper hand in the latter half of the fourth century. Theological diatribes against the Jews began to appear in Roman law. The Roman Empire, once a multicultural nation, became a theocracy defined by Christian intolerance, something which spread throughout the Western world. Jews and non-Christians were persecuted and slaughtered more mercilessly than at any other time.

Due to this religious fanaticism, God’s Chosen People were forced to live separately, often quarantined. They were stripped of their wealth, their property, and most all of their rights – not unlike the way Muslims treat Jews today. In many cases, they were returned to slavery. Yisra’elites were regularly dehumanized, treated as scapegoats, humiliated, and slaughtered by Christian authorities. This intolerance, in large part, resulted in the Dark Ages – that depraved period when all of Europe was under the monstrous shadow of a corrupt, covetous, and deadly Church ruled from Rome. In this way, Roman Catholicism became the most popular, oppressive, and bloodthirsty religion the world has ever known.

This deplorable state of affairs was summarized this way: “Mixed marriages between Jews and Christians were now punished by death.” In the Codex Thedosians of the Emperor Theodosius II (408-450), Jews were forbidden to hold any public office. They could no longer operate or build synagogues. Justinian completed this process of discrimination against the Jews in the sixth century by “outlawing them, along with all pagans and other heretics.” (The Misery of Christianity – a Plea for Humanity without God, by Joachin Kahl)

Commodian, a noted Christian poet, embellished the platform Roman Catholics would pursue. He composed the following poem on Jews and Judaizers. “What! Art thou half a Jew? Then wilt thou be half profane? O evil men in so many places, and so often rebuked by the law of those who cry aloud. And the lofty One despises your Sabbaths and altogether rejects your universal monthly feasts according to the law, that ye should not make to Him the commanded sacrifices. If any should not believe that He, God, perished by an unjust death, and that those who were beloved were saved by other laws and not by the life that was suspended on the tree, then they believe not on Him.” (Commodianus, Instructiones, edited by B. Lombart in CSEL, XV (1887); Volume 3 of The Writings of Tertullian by R. E. Wallis (Edinburgh, 1870), page 452)

All of these hateful words implicate Rome and its Church. And these words have led us to the realization that there is no meaningful distinction between them. One simply grew out of the other. Chrysostom was the reincarnation of Hadrian.

 Fortunately we have come to the end of Rome’s miserable pontiffs. The last man flailing at the top of the Beast’s favorite cesspool was known as Theodosius the Great. He was the final Emperor to rule over both halves of the Roman Empire. And yet, just as Yahowah had predicted a thousand years earlier through his prophet Dany’el, his caustic influence would endure, shaping Rome’s legacy for a thousand years.

Much of the horror imposed on continental Europe, Asia, and the New Word by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Church can be laid at Theodosius’s feet. He inaugurated the feudal system of Lord and serf by imposing religious mandates that plagued the billions of people, robbing them of personal freedom, wealth, dignity, access to information, and ultimately their souls. He forced the church’s and state’s interpretation Christianity on his subjects, declaring that the Eastern Orthodox Church was “Universal,” and thus “Catholic.” And for the first time, Christianity became the official state religion of the Roman Empire.

This decree initiated an open hunting season on Jews, pagans, and heretics – on anyone holding a contrarian view. Every polytheistic ritual which hadn’t already been incorporated into the Church’s nomenclature was banned. The mantra was: convert or die. Except for Jews. So as not to infect the purity of the faith, and to assure the faithful retained a foe, they were not to be converted. But it was okay to kill them.

The imposed orthodoxy was Nicaean – which by 380 CE, was the only surviving form of Christianity. Simply stated, every denomination in the world today, no matter if it is Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, or Protestant, was established in Nicaea in 325 CE – and is thereby plagued by its creed.

Throughout the Roman Empire, the bishops of the emerging Church convened the Council of Nicaea on Constantine’s orders. And so while this meeting took place a score of years before Theodosius was born, we are covering it now because Christianity remained divided between Arians and Catholics until Theodosius, in league with Ambrose, ended the conflict on behalf of Catholics.

The purpose of the Nicaean Counsel was singular. Anti-Semitic Christian clerics sought to remove Yahowah and His “Old Testament,” especially His Torah and its instructions, from their religion and replace Him and His Word with “Iesous Christos – Jesus Christ” and their Pauline “New Testament.” To accomplish this less-than-divine duplicity, the Christian man-god had to be equal to and equivalent with the Father – “homoousios – the exact same essence and being” – turning the man into the totality of God. And yet, while of the “same essence,” the new Christian man-god would bear no resemblance of any kind with the antiquated god he was designed to replace. It was ignorant and irrational. It was insane. It was, of course, a notion promoted by Paul.

As we have discovered, there were individuals at the time who knew that this was nonsense. Yahowsha’, by His own admission, stated emphatically that He was a diminished manifestation of Yahowah. He had to be. The very transition from spirit / energy to matter / a physical being requires a degradation of scale equivalent to the speed of light multiplied by the speed of light: E=MC2. All of God won’t fit into the universe, and therefore cannot be confined to the body of a human being.

The reality missed by Christians is that Yahowsha’ is a part of Yahowah, set apart from Him to reveal Yahowah to us and to fulfill God’s promises. As such, Yahowsha’ serves as the hand and mouth of Yahowah. Nothing more. Nothing less. Yahowsha’ did not come for us to pay attention to Him, for us to worship Him, for us to pray to Him, but instead to reveal Yahowah to us and make it possible for us to know the Father. Those who focus on Yahowsha’ as the Nicaean Bishops did under an different name, rather than looking through Him to Yahowah, miss the purpose and benefit of His mission. It is akin to worshipping a toenail rather than looking up and coming to know the individual from which it came. But yet in 325 CE, in the Empire of the Beast, in the city named after the Greek god of Victory, Christianity became a cult fixated on an artificial contrivance. 

As we now know, the most outspoken advocate of the truth was Arius. He cited Yahowah’s and Yahowsha’s testimony to prove that according to God, Yahowsha’ was not equivalent to the Father. But this truth had to be discarded for the new religion of Christianity to prosper in the anti-Semitic culture of Greece and Rome. As a result, Arians were labeled heretics, and “Iesous Christos – Jesus Christ” became the “Lord God,” entirely divine – with “the fullness of the godhead residing upon him bodily.” With all of Christendom pushed toward agreement politically and religiously, the only things left to accomplish were to establish the uniform observance of the pagan celebration of Easter, disassociate it from Passover, promulgate cannon law, degrade the Torah, outlaw God’s actual instructions, and then impose the resulting religion on everyone.

The first step in this process had been initiated centuries ago in Paul’s letters to the Galatians and then to his fellow Romans. The second step was inaugurated under Constantine and the Nicaean Council. The third materialized seventy-five years later under Theodosius when he imposed the resulting religion. Nothing has changed since. Rome would soon to be severed and then die, only to be resurrected as the Church. And it will give rise to the Beast of the Tribulation.

All non-Nicaean Christians were excommunicated from the Church. Roman holidays, as had been the case with Yahowah’s Feasts, were now outlawed. Heretics were vigorously pursued and usually tortured. All competitive religious buildings were either shuttered or transformed into churches. Theodosius even banned the Olympics due to its association with the Greek gods his religion had emulated. He encouraged the destruction of any ancient edifice that had any association with any god other than his own creation, unless, of course, they could be converted into palaces for his bishops and lords.

While the Church regales him, Theodosius was hardly a saint. In 390 CE, chaos ensued in Thessalonica after one of his garrisons acted belligerently, resulting in the death of the Roman commander. In retaliation, Theodosius ordered the mass murder of every spectator in the local Circus. For this crime, Saint Ambrose excommunicated Theodosius for a whopping two months, readmitting him to the Church after proper penance and payments. His contribution to Christendom was the removal and transfer of an obelisk from Egypt to Constantinople. Replete with sun-god slogans and imagery devoted to Amen Ra, it had originally been dedicated in Karnak, the Vatican of the Egyptian priesthood. But the Church, in order to make the pagan object Christian, carved a supporting base that showed Theodosius and his royal family set apart from other nobility, offering a laurel wreath – another symbol of the sun.

The obelisk dedicated to Pharaoh Thutmosis IV which was standing beside it in Karnak is now called the Lateran Obelisk of Constantius II. The Church of the Sun had it shipped to Rome where it currently stands next to the Papal Palace in the Vatican. It is also a canvas of religious pontifications. Even the most famous Roman Catholic obelisk, the one in the center of the Vatican, was brought from Egypt to Rome by Caligula. Collectively, this trilogy of pagan symbols reveals that there was no distinction any between the Empire and its Church. The same god ruled over both.

Throughout the centuries, Emperor Theodosius’s conspiracy of cleric and king, empowered lords to reign over serfs. But the anguish was not limited to Europe and Asia. Spanish Catholics claimed “a divinely ordained right to take possession of the territories of the New World and to subjugate, exploit and, when necessary, to fight the native inhabitants.” Having justified their conquests using Catholic theology throughout the sixteenth century, Christians quickly subjugated native peoples around the globe, plundering their lands and wealth. Countless millions died as the Roman Catholic Church “devoured, devastated, trampled down, destroyed, and crushed” the new world, just as they done to the old – fulfilling the prophecy rendered in the 7th chapter of Dany’el.

Opening the 8th chapter, the text has returned to Hebrew, making our study more productive. But just as the languages are similar, the message is essentially the same. Yahowah is showing Dany’el future history, this time picking up the story with the conquest of the Persians by the Greeks. And as with the previous chapter, the imagery will all be explained by one of Yah’s messengers. Also consistent, this vision concludes in the same place, presenting the adversarial nature of the final Beast.

“In the third year (ba shalysh shanah) of the reign of (la malkuwth – in the rule of) Belsha’tsar (Belsha’tsar – Bel (the Lord) Protects the King, commonly transliterated Belshazzar, last of the Chaldean kings 555-539 BCE), the king (melek – governmental ruler), a communication (dabar – the communication (corrected to reflect the discrepancy between 4QDan and the MT)) appeared (ra’ah – was viewed and revealed) to me (‘el ‘any), Dany’el (Dany’el – God Judges and Vindicates), after (‘achar – following and subsequent to) the one seen by me (ha ra’ah ‘el – the one shown to me) in the beginning (ba ha tachilah – previously).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:1)

It is now 553 BCE. Dany’el is still a prisoner in Babylon. But as a result of his vast knowledge and superior intellect, he is an advisor to the king. And yet more important than any of this, Dany’el is not only Towrah observant, he is open and receptive to Yahowah’s guidance, equipping him to serve as a prophet.

This time, Dany’el isn’t retiring for the evening, lying upon his bed at night, seeing the revelation in his head. He has been taken to the scene of the action and is an eyewitness. For that to occur, Dany’el had to be transformed by Yahowah, with his corporeal nature changed into energy, enabling the prophet to move forward in time and space. It is something all of Yahowah’s Covenant children will someday experience as we set off to explore the universe.

“And (wa) while I was viewing in the prophetic revelation (ra’ah ba ha chazown – I paid attention and realized from viewing) it came to exist (wa ba hayah – it happened and came to exist) as I was looking (ba ra’ah – when I was being shown) that I was in (wa ‘any ba) the citadel (ha byrah – capitol, palace, or castle) of Shuwshan (Shuwshan – lotus flower, the blue bloom of a large Egyptian water lily; transliterated Susa, capital of Elam in modern southwest Iran; from suws – to exult), which is in (‘asher ba) the Province of (madynah – kingdom or nation of) ‘Eylam (‘Eylam – between the Zagros Mountains and the Persian Gulf in modern Iran running parallel to the Gulf, Tigris River, and Iraqi border, beginning adjacent to the Strait of Hormuz to northeast of Ur at the mouth of the Euphrates).

And then I saw (wa ra’ah – then I witnessed) that I, Myself, was (wa ‘any hayah) in the prophetic revelation (ba ha chazown – a vital visual communication from God regarding the future, providing the perceptive with understanding) at the waterway (‘al ‘uwbal – the canal or river) of ‘Uwlay (‘Uwlay – Foolish Leaders; from ‘ewyl – one who ignorantly and irrationally mocks others when he, himself, is guilty).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:2)

The country of ‘Eylam is not well known today. It was actually called Haltamti by the natives, but was acknowledged in Sumerian, Akkadian, and Hebrew as “Elam” because the offspring of Elam, the eldest son of Shem, settled there. Its history spans more than two millennia from 3200 BCE to 539 BCE. The community is result of three tribes allying in response to a series of invasions by Sumer, the civilization which developed around Ur at the mouth of the Euphrates River. To venerate their gods, they built ziggurats in Eylam to sun deities and carved statues of the Queen of Heaven replete with fish and serpents. At their zenith, they successfully raided Babylonia and built elaborate temples and palaces. Ultimately, the Elamites became overly indulgent and destroyed themselves through a series of civil wars, brother fighting brother.

Ashurbanipal, initiated the most devastating of these internal conflicts, waging war against his brother, Shamash-Shum-Ukin. After which, he provided us with a contemporary portrayal of what this place had been like: “Susa, the great holy city, abode of their Gods, seat of their mysteries, I conquered. I entered its palaces, I opened their treasuries where silver and gold, goods and wealth were amassed.... I destroyed the ziggurat of Susa. I smashed its shining copper horns. I reduced the temples of Elam to naught; their gods and goddesses I scattered to the winds. The tombs of their ancient and recent kings I devastated, I exposed to the sun, and I carried away their bones toward the land of Ashur. I devastated the provinces of Elam and on their lands I sowed salt.”

Elam was assimilated into the Assyrian Empire, was ultimately conquered by the Medians and integrated into the Median Empire. Yachezq’el / Ezekiel describes the fall in 587 BCE in 32:24: “There is Elam and all her multitude. All around her grave, all of them are slain, fallen by the sword. Who have gone down uncircumcised to the lower parts of the earth? Who caused their terror in the land of the living? Now they bear their shame with those who go down to the Pit.” And should you be curious, the ‘Uwlay waterway is the eastern branch of the Eulaus River. It is located twenty miles east of Shuwshan / Susa.

There is an interesting footnote associated with Shuwshan, especially since this prophecy will highlight the rise and fall of the Macedonian Empire while the next describes the circumstances surrounding Alexander the Great’s death. It was in Susa circa 323 BCE, prior to Alexander’s arrival in Babylon and subsequent death, that his most trusted oracle, the Swami Calanus, committed suicide by self-immolation. Prior to his fiery demise, however, the Hindu sage served as Alexander’s spiritual advisor, prophetic forecaster, and intellectual muse. Brazen during their initial meeting, Calanus actually commanded Alexander to strip naked if he wanted to hear what he had to say, a demand that might have led to his death had the sage not also said that Alexander came from Jupiter, and thus was a god. An old man at the time, more than twice Alexander’s age, the General’s favored yoga instructor and conversationalist ultimately tired of the travel associated with the Macedonian’s conquests. So just before going out in a blaze of glory in Susa upon a pyre constructed by General Ptolemy, Calanus told Alexander, “We shall meet in Babylon.” It was considered a prophetic announcement of the location of Alexander’s impending demise.

Continuing with the vision Dany’el was experiencing in this place, it is helpful to know that Gabriel will soon reveal that this ram represents the Medians who became Persians following their conquest of Babylonia...

“Then (wa) I lifted up (nasa’) my eyes (‘ayn – my gaze) and I was observant (ra’ah – I looked around, viewing the vision), and behold (wa hineh – open one’s eyes and pay attention), a large Ram (‘ayl rahab – an enormous leader, a substantial ruler, or important governor, someone who shepherds a substantial flock (corrected to reflect 4QDan)), one (‘echad) standing in front of the stream (‘amad la paneh ha ‘uwbal). And upon him were (wa la) two horns (tsemed qerenym – a couple of powerful people or institutions (updated to reflect 4QDan)). And the horns (wa ha qerenym) were high, haughty, and conceited (gaboah – were of a boastful official seeking power and status who is arrogant and amoral). But the one (wa ha ‘echad) was higher, more self-exalting, and power craving (gaboah – was more conceited, more seeking of status, and more arrogant and amoral) than the other (min ha seny). And the more arrogant and domineering (wa ha qaboah – the loftiest, most haughty and conceited, the more self-exalting and self-serving, the more desirous of power and status) ascended (‘alah – was lifted up and exalted, growing out of) from the former in the end (ba ha ‘acharown – from the previous one subsequently in the last days).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:3)

This is a depiction of Media-Persia, and how working together, they throttled Assyria before conquering Babylonia. But the Median kingdom was but a candle in the wind, while Persia under Cyrus the Great, would go on to profoundly influence the world over the course of many centuries. And over the vast chasms of time, few characters have been as arrogant and domineering as Cyrus. He would say of himself: “I am Cyrus, king of the world.” Also: “I took up my lordly abode in the royal palace amidst rejoicing and happiness. Marduk, the Great Lord, established as his fate for me a magnanimous heart of one who loves Babylon.”

The Persian military was one of the most effective in human history. They were especially adept horsemen, swordsmen, and archers, justifying the use of “nagah – piercing and goring” in the next statement. Also accurate, Cyrus would stretch the borders of the Persian Empire in every direction except toward the east. He expanded southward to the Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf and northward toward the Scythians and into the Caucasus, even encircling the Black Sea. The western edge of his Empire included Egypt and much of Libya along the southern edge of the Mediterranean and included all of Turkey and most of Macedonia on the northern rim of the Great Sea.

“I saw (ra’ah), accordingly (‘eth), the Ram (ha ‘ayl – the leader, ruler, or governor) attacking and goring (nagah – engaging in battle, piercing and destroying) westward (yam – toward the sea), northward (wa tsaphown), also to the south (wa negeb). And none of the beasts could stand (wa kol chayah lo’ ‘amad) in its presence (la paneh). None were spared (wa ‘ayn natsal) from his influence (min yad – from his hand, power, and control). So it acted (wa ‘asah – it engaged and did) as it pleased him (ka ratsown – according to his pleasure and strong desires). And he was exalted and became great (wa gadal – and he achieved a high status).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:4)

Before we move from the Ram (which is often cast in the role of savior in the Torah) to the Goat (usually representing a rebellious influence), note that Cyrus was extraordinarily kind to Yisra’elites – especially those who were held captive in Babylon. He would write: “I have given leave to as many of the Yahuwdym that dwell in my country as please to return to their own country, and to rebuild their city, and to build the Temple of God at Yaruwshalaim on the same place where it was before. I have also sent my treasurer Mithridates, and Zorobabel, the governor of the Yahuwdym, that they may lay the foundations of the temple.... I require also that the expenses for these things may be given out of my revenues. Moreover, I have also sent the vessels which king Nebuchadnezzar pillaged out of the Temple, and have given them to Mithridates, the treasurer, and to Zorobabel, the governor of the Jews, so that they may have them carried to Yaruwshalaim, and may restore them to the Temple of God.”

Cyrus was such an astute businessman, his books on the subject are still considered among the most insightful. Even after he was dead, Persia’s desire to control the shipping lanes and trade routes between nations led to the conflicts between the “Ram” and the “Goat.”

“And so as I, myself, began to comprehend (wa ‘any hayah byn – then I came to understand), then behold (wa hineh – take note and pay attention), a Goat (tsaphyr) was coming (bow’) from the west (min ha ma’arab) before (‘al) the presence (paneh) of the entire region (kol ha ‘erets), and yet not even striking (wa ‘ayn naga’ – not driving away or plaguing) the Land (ba ha ‘erets). And the Goat’s (wa ha tsaphyr) horn (qeren) had a prominent feature (chazuwth – distinguishing object) between his eyes (byn ‘ayn).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:5)

At the conclusion of this prophecy, Yahowah’s spiritual messenger, Gabry’el / Gabriel, will reveal that the Goat is charging out of Macedonia in the west. Further affirming the prophecy, there is no contemporaneous evidence that Alexander the Great had any meaningful contact with Yisra’el, and most assuredly didn’t wage war against Yahuwdah or Yaruwshalaim. But by introducing Hellenic culture into neighboring Syrian and Egypt, Alexander influenced the development of Judaism more than any Gentile in history. As evidence of this, four-hundred years after Alexander ravaged Gaza and marched through Yisra’el unopposed in 332 BCE, Josephus, one of Judaism’s three most acclaimed voices (along with Rabbi Akiba and Maimonides), in an fanciful attempt to promote the myth that the great general paid homage to the high priests of Judaism, concocted the following story:

“Alexander went to Jerusalem after having taken Gaza. Jaddua, the High Priest, had a warning from God received in a dream, in which he saw himself vested in a purple robe, with his miter (a golden plate on which the name YHWH was engraved) on his head. Accordingly, he went to meet Alexander at Sapha to take in the view of the Temple. Followed by the priests, all clothed in fine linen, and by a multitude of citizens, Jaddua awaited the coming of the king. When Alexander saw the high priest, he reverenced God (Targum Lev. R. xiii., end), and saluted Jaddua; while the Jews with one voice greeted Alexander. When Parmenio, the general, gave expression to the army’s surprise at Alexander's extraordinary act—that one who ought to be adored by all as king should adore the High Priest of the Jews—Alexander replied: ‘I did not adore him, but the God who hath honored him with this High Priesthood; for I saw this very person in a dream, in this very habit, when I was at Dios in Macedonia, who, when I was considering with myself how I might obtain dominion of Asia, exhorted me to make no delay, but boldly to pass over the sea, promising that he would conduct my army, and would give me the dominion over the Persians.’ Alexander then gave the high priest his right hand, and went into the Temple and ‘offered sacrifice to God according to the high priest's direction,’ treating the whole priesthood magnificently.”

And when the Book of Daniel was shown him [see Dan. VII. 6, VIII. 5-8, 20-22, XI. 3-4], wherein Daniel declared that one of the Greeks should destroy the empire of the Persians, he supposed that he was the person intended, and rejoiced thereat. The following day Alexander asked the people what favors he should grant them; and, at the High Priest’s request, he accorded them the right to live in full enjoyment of the laws of their forefathers.” (Josephus, Antiquities, XI, 8, pages 4-6) While none of this occurred, it shows the desperate lengths Jewish leaders went to justify their exalted positions, their religious laws, and the pervasive Greek influence in Judaism, especially Qaballah. Even the Jewish Encyclopedia acknowledges “All the accounts which the Talmud and Midrash give concerning Alexander the Macedonian are of a legendary character.”  

“Then (wa) he came (wa bow’) up to (‘ad) the Ram (ha ‘ayl) possessing (ba’al – the owner and master who controls, Ba’al, the Lord) the two horns (qerenym) which (‘asher) I saw (ra’ah) standing (‘amad) before the presence of (la paneh) the waterway (‘uwbal – canal or stream). And it ran (wa ruwts) at him (‘al) in powerful venomous anger (ba chemah koah – enraged, poisonous, and deadly, in great hostility and robust antagonism).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:6)

This depicts the Goat coming after the Ram, revealing that the Macedonians would be the aggressor, pursuing the Persians in this battle – as was the case. But also keep in mind, Cyrus was resolutely pagan. While he and his priests promoted a wide array of false gods, they were principally devoted to the mythology of Bel – the Lord.

The Persians had menaced the Greeks, beating them badly and consistently, bringing the war to the midst of the Greek peninsula. So there was some lingering animosity.

“And I witnessed him (wa ra’ah – I saw him) approaching and making contact with (naga’ ‘etsel) the Ram (‘ayl – the leader who governs), and he was bitterly furious at him (wa marar ‘el – he was bitter and anguished, angry and enraged toward him). And so he struck the Ram (wa nakah ‘eth ha ‘ayl), and thereby broke (wa shabar ‘eth) both of his horns (shanaym qeren – two of his horns). And in the Ram (wa ba ha ‘ayl), there was insufficient capability, power, and resources (lo’ hayah koah – a lack of strength, might, and authority) to withstand his presence (la ‘amad la paneh) but even so (wa) he was overthrown, humbled, and hurled down to (wa shalak – he was toppled and thrown down to) earth (‘erets – ground, especially in the land or realm). And he will be trampled and tread upon by him (wa ramac). The ram (wa ‘ayl) was not be spared from his hand (lo’ hayah natsal la – will not be saved from his influence, power, or capability).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:7)

King Darius III of Persia fought Alexander and his Hellenic League at the location of his choosing, a wide-open plain near ancient Nineveh, not far from Mosul in today’s northern Iraq. Darius, who led the larger force and was fighting close to home, actually prepared the battleground, flattening the terrain so as to give his war chariots optimal operating conditions.

While we will consider the prelude to this battle and more in a moment, suffice it to say for now, Alexander had spent the previous year transitioning from warrior to savage, losing all sense of civility while besieging Tyre and then Gaza. Then in Egypt, he positioned himself as the Master of the Universe and the living incarnation of Amun. And during this time Darius offered Alexander his kingdom and his treasure to return his family and leave him alone. Replying to one of offers, the Macedon wrote: “From King Alexander to Darius: If you wish to dispute your throne, stand up and fight for it, and do not run away. Wherever you hide, I will find you.”

Alexander was now obsessed. He marched into the heart of the Persian Empire, crossing the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers without opposition. All the while, Darius was building an army of between fifty-thousand and one-hundred thousand soldiers, half of which were on horseback. By comparison, there were forty thousand Greek infantry and seven-thousand cavalry. However, be cautioned. As we have discovered with the Greek propensity to alter the Christian New Testament to serve their agenda, the mythical propensity to revise history was inbred. So to project Alexander as a god among men, some ancient Greek historians would have us believe that the Persian army numbered between two-hundred and three-hundred thousand. But in all likelihood, the number of Persian troops was only slightly greater than Alexander’s at around fifty-three thousand.

Outnumbering his foe by a little or a lot, on his home turf on a battlefield he had prepared to his advantage, Darius offered to cede the western half of the Persian Empire without a fight, and yet Alexander declined. Parmenion, one of Alexander's generals, said that if he were Alexander he would have accepted the generous offer. To which Alexander, demonstrating his enormous ego, replied, “And I would too, if I were Parmenion.”

That evening, Parmenion encouraged Alexander to launch a surprise attack under the cover of darkness in order to negate the enemy’s advantage. Alexander declined, expecting Darius to keep his army up all night in anticipation of that very thing. Alexander was so nonplused by the impending engagement, he overslept the next morning, only to be awakened by his generals and say that the battle had already been won.

The fact is, Darius’s troops were inexperienced, poorly trained, and inadequately equipped. By comparison, Alexander’s infantry fought in a phalanx with heavy shields and ten-foot spears, while the spears of the Persian Immortals were three feet shorter and their shields were designed for protecting royals from civilians, and not soldiers from warriors.

Alexander would lead troops from Macedon, Corinth, Trace, and Thessalonica all of whom were battle tested. Darius deployed two-hundred Scythian scythed chariots, which is why he removed every shrub from the battlefield. He also deployed the ancient-world’s version of a tank, with fifteen Indian elephants. Both sides predictably arranged their armies in traditional fashion. The battle commenced with the Macedonian infantry in phalanx formation marching into the center of the Persian line. Alexander’s flanks were extended like wings, tilted back at forty-five degrees. Darius responded by attacking his enemy’s left flank under the command of Parmenion. But rather than reinforcing his general, Alexander moved dramatically in the other direction, toward his right flank, hoping to open up a gap in Darius’s line as his infantry pursued him.

Meanwhile the Scythian scythed chariots were being effectively countered by the discipline and experience of the Macedonian cavalry on Alexander’s extreme right. They prevailed by maneuvering the chariots away from the ground that had been previously prepared, rendering them ineffective. Then as Darius countered Alexander’s move to the right, his cavalry routed the Greek horsemen in the vicinity of the Macedon general. The more cavalry Alexander engaged, the less favorable the outcome. The Scythian horses were better protected and their riders were nearly as accomplished. And yet somehow, the Greek auxiliary forces drove the Persians out of their ranks. And during their retreat, the Greeks pursued and slaughtered many of them.

All the while, Alexander allowed Darius to collapse his wings, a move that would have been fatal if the Macedonian general didn’t simultaneously draw his entire army into a wedge formation, pointing the tip directly at the Persian king. Darius fell back, his troops retreating with him. However, Alexander, learning that his left flank under Parmenion was encircled, and was on the verge of being destroyed, elected to save his army rather than strike Darius down. When they arrived, they found Darius’s troops attempting to loot the Greek camp, which evened the odds, allowing for the rescue of the trapped troops.

Immediately thereafter, Alexander set off with his bodyguards in pursuit of treasure, not Darius. En route to Susa, they came upon the king’s personal baggage, with a bankroll of over four-thousand talents (since each talent represents twenty-six kilograms of silver, each talent is worth approximately $25,000, valuing the captured treasury at $100 million). But that was inconsequential to what he would later find and would now own. All of Persia and Babylon were now Alexander’s.

“And the great Goat (wa tsaphyr ha ‘ez) grew and was exalted, magnifying himself (gadal – triumphed and was called great), until at the very highest extent of his war plunder (‘ad me’od), at a time when his empire was the vastest (wa ka ‘atsam). Then the great horn / leader (ha gadowl ha qeren) was broken (shabar – cease to exist). And four (wa ‘arba’) conspicuously appeared (chazuwth), offered up and ascending (‘alah – rising up) in its place (tachath), extending toward (la) the four winds (‘arba’ ruwach) of the sky (shamaym).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:8)

Alexander would die fabulously powerful and rich shortly after winning his greatest battle. His top four generals divided his empire and ruled in his place. History played out exactly as God revealed. Even the subtle nuance about him “not striking the Land” turned out to be accurate. Gaza isn’t part of Yisra’el.

So that we do not lose our bearings, here is a quick review of the territory we have recently covered.

“In the third year (ba shalysh shanah) of the reign of (la malkuwth) Belsha’tsar (Belsha’tsar), the king (melek), a communication (dabar) appeared (ra’ah) to me (‘el ‘any), Dany’el (Dany’el), after (‘achar) the one seen by me (ha ra’ah ‘el) in the beginning (ba ha tachilah). (8:1)

And (wa) while I was viewing in the prophetic revelation (ra’ah ba ha chazown)m it came to exist (wa ba hayah) as I was looking (ba ra’ah) that I was in (wa ‘any ba) the citadel (ha byrah) of Shuwshan (Shuwshan), which is in (‘asher ba) the Province of (madynah) ‘Eylam (‘Eylam). Then I saw (wa ra’ah) that I, Myself, was (wa ‘any hayah) in the prophetic revelation (ba ha chazown) at the waterway (‘al ‘uwbal) of ‘Uwlay (‘Uwlay). (8:2)

Next (wa) I lifted up (nasa’) my eyes (‘ayn) and I was observant (ra’ah), and behold (wa hineh), a large Ram (‘ayl rahab), one (‘echad) standing in front of the stream (‘amad la paneh ha ‘uwbal). And upon him were (wa la) two horns (tsemed qerenym). And the horns (wa ha qerenym) were high, haughty, and conceited (gaboah). But the one (wa ha ‘echad) was higher, more self-exalting, and power craving (gaboah) than the other (min ha seny). And the more arrogant and domineering (wa ha qaboah) ascended (‘alah) from the former in the end (ba ha ‘acharown). (8:3)

I saw (ra’ah), accordingly (‘eth), the Ram (ha ‘ayl) attacking and goring (nagah) westward (yam), northward (wa tsaphown), also to the south (wa negeb). And none of the beasts could stand (wa kol chayah lo’ ‘amad) in its presence (la paneh). None were spared (wa ‘ayn natsal) from his influence (min yad). So it acted (wa ‘asah) as it pleased him (ka ratsown). And he was exalted and became great (wa gadal). (8:4)

And so as I, myself, began to comprehend (wa ‘any hayah byn), then behold (wa hineh), a Goat (tsaphyr) was coming (bow’) from the west (min ha ma’arab) before (‘al) the presence (paneh) of the entire region (kol ha ‘erets), and yet not even striking (wa ‘ayn naga’) the Land (ba ha ‘erets). And the Goat’s (wa ha tsaphyr) horn (qeren) had a prominent feature (chazuwth) between his eyes (byn ‘ayn). (8:5)

Then (wa) he came (wa bow’) up to (‘ad) the Ram (ha ‘ayl) possessing (ba’al) the two horns (qerenym) which (‘asher) I saw (ra’ah) standing (‘amad) before the presence of (la paneh) the waterway (‘uwbal). And it ran (wa ruwts) at him (‘al) in powerful venomous anger (ba chemah koah). (8:6)

And I witnessed him (wa ra’ah) approaching and making contact with (naga’ ‘etsel) the Ram (‘ayl), and he was bitterly furious at him (wa marar ‘el). And so he struck the Ram (wa nakah ‘eth ha ‘ayl), and thereby broke (wa shabar ‘eth) both of his horns (shanaym qeren). And in the Ram (wa ba ha ‘ayl), there was insufficient capability, power, and resources (lo’ hayah koah) to withstand his presence (la ‘amad la paneh) but even so (wa) he was overthrown, humbled, and hurled down to (wa shalak) earth (‘erets). And he will be trampled and tread upon by him (wa ramac). The ram (wa ‘ayl) was not be spared from his hand (lo’ hayah natsal la). (8:7)

And the great Goat (wa tsaphyr ha ‘ez) grew and was exalted, magnifying himself (gadal), until at the very highest extent of his war plunder (‘ad me’od), at a time when his empire was the vastest (wa ka ‘atsam). Then the great horn / leader (ha gadowl ha qeren) was broken (shabar). And four (wa ‘arba’) conspicuously appeared (chazuwth), offered up and ascending (‘alah) in its place (tachath), extending toward (la) the four winds (‘arba’ ruwach) of the sky (shamaym).” (Dany’el 8:8)

At this moment, as we did in the previous revelation, out of the ashes of history long ago we find ourselves confronted with our immediate future. The Beast of the Tribulation will emerge out of the Lowly and Little. He will arise from a young and small nation associated directly with the “‘echad – one” who was Alexander, the internationally acclaimed Macedonian king and general. And from there, his influence will stretch southeast toward the Promised Land.

“And out of the one (wa min ha ‘echad – so then from the singular and unique), because of them (min – from and out of them), he came forth (min yatsa’ – he came out, exiting and departing) as one horn / a solitary individual ruler (qeren ‘echad – a single entity emerged) from the lowly and little (min tsa’yr – out of the insignificant, young, and small). And it grew great (wa gadal – and it (the horn / authority and influence) became boastful, powerful, and important, magnifying itself), preying upon the remnant while confiscating their remaining wealth, arrogantly bragging in the process (yether – acting superior while accumulating abundant affluence by force of arms as an unrestrained and prideful moral failure) toward the south (‘el ha negeb) and to the east (wa ‘el ha mizrach), and toward the desirable and glorious (wa ‘el ha tsaby – the beautiful, valuable, honorable, and attractive (speaking of the Promised Land)).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:9)

Based upon the specific wording in this revelation, it seems certain that the Towrahless One of the Tribulation will grow up in Macedonia, where he will rise in influence – just as had Alexander. And it should be noted, that while ancient Macedon was larger than the present incarnation, especially in the south where it touched the sea, almost all of Macedonia falls within the original footprint of the realm that gave birth to Alexander.

Also as was the case with Alexander, this prophecy reveals that the Towrahless One will expand his holdings by move south and east, toward the Promised Land. And since the previous prophetic vision spoke of the emerging Beast gaining control over three of Rome’s provinces, the most likely nations amalgamated into his sphere of influence will be Greece and Turkey, with Syria and possibly Lebanon assimilated next. And so once again, our focus should be on the Eastern Roman Empire and its Eastern Orthodox Church – on the people and places tread upon by Rome and Greece alike. We will have another Paul, another Constantine, and another Theodosius – all blended into one miserable individual.

While we have already considered Alexander’s final battle, and while we will evaluate insights relative to his demise shortly, let’s ponder where he came from and where he went since both are now germane – with the past being played out again in our future. This Goat was born Alexander III of Macedon in 356 BCE in Pella. His father, Phillip II ruled Macedon from this location, which was one of many allied and adversarial Greek communities. In their day, Pella was a port city on the Thermaic Gulf of the Aegean Sea.

The Goat’s mother, Olympias, was the fourth of Philip’s eight wives. She was conniving and murderous. Legend has it that she was impregnated by Zeus, making her child the son of god. The day Alexander was born, Philip was besieging Potidea on the Chalcidice Peninsula. But he wasn’t the only character with a vested interest in our Goat on this day that was away from home. Mixing mythology and history, the patriots and propagandists would have us believe that the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world, was burnt down on the day little Alex was born because Artemis was away tending to the birth of the son of god. Alexander played this to the hilt throughout his life, promoting the myth of his divine parentage.

Alexander never knew the loving embrace of a mother and father. At an early age, the young boy was raised by Lanike and Leonidas, both strict disciplinarians. He was schooled in war by Lysimachus, one of Philip’s generals. At thirteen, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle, a relationship which continued until the age of sixteen. His boarding school was the Temple of the Nymphs at Mieza. The only reason Aristotle consented to such duty, was because Philip agreed to rebuild the philosopher’s hometown of Stageira, which the king had razed, while also freeing those he had enslaved. Also attending said classroom were Ptolemy, Hephaestion, and Cassander, Alexander’s future generals. While the young student loved Homer’s Odyssey, he carried the Iliad with him on his conquests as if he was reliving it.

At age sixteen, Alexander’s formal education was concluded. His father was at war with Byzantion and he left his son in charge of Macedon as his regent. And during Philip’s absence, the heir apparent had the opportunity to prove his metal when the Thracians revolted. He successfully exiled them, colonizing their territory with Greeks while founding a city he called “Alexandropolis.”

Shortly thereafter, Philip sent the teenage Alexander off with troops to quell revolts in southern Thrace, which was due east of Macedon, and thus north of the Bosporus Strait toward the Black Sea. While initially successful, he was quickly recalled by Philip to subdue Amphissa, a farming community thirty miles west of Athens. The Greeks living there allegedly had the audacity to cultivate Apollo’s sacred land near Delphi and thus had to be punished. But while in pursuit, Alexander was met by an Illyria invasion into Macedonia which he repulsed.

In 338 BCE, when Alexander was eighteen, he joined his father on a march through Thermopylae, where they suppressed Theban resistance. But while en route to Athens, the Athenians voted to league with Thebes against Macedon. The battle for control of the Peloponnese commenced in Chaeronea, just two day’s march from Athens. Philip prevailed by feigning retreat, thereby breaking the Athenian lines as they rushed into the fray. In the ensuing chaos, the Athenians were routed, making the isolated Thebans easy prey.

Every Greek city-state except Sparta capitulated, acknowledging Philip as their king. But rather than fighting, Sparta during meeting at Corinth, negotiated a Hellenic Alliance whereby they agreed to name the Macedonian king “Hegemon – Supreme Allied Commander.” The stated purpose of the League of Corinth was to attack the Persian Empire.

But there were some glitches on the way to war. Back in Pella, Philip married Cleopatra Eurydice, a child who was the niece of General Attalus. Since she was a purebred noblewoman, even as Philip’s seventh wife, her children’s claim to the throne would supersede Alexander’s. The historian Plutarch describes the sordid affair: “At the wedding of Cleopatra, whom Philip fell in love with and married, she being much too young for him, her uncle Attalus in his drink desired the Macedonians would implore the gods to give them a lawful successor to the kingdom by his niece. This so irritated Alexander, that throwing one of the cups at his head, ‘You villain,’ said he, ‘what, am I then a bastard?’ Then Philip, taking Attalus’s part, rose up and would have run his son through; but by good fortune for them both, either his over-hasty rage, or the wine he had drunk, made his foot slip, so that he fell down on the floor. At which Alexander reproachfully insulted over him: ‘See there,’ said he, ‘the man who makes preparations to pass out of Europe into Asia, overturned in passing from one seat to another.’”

Not as courageous as he is made out to be, our Goat fled Macedon with his mother, dropping her off in Dodona, the capital of the Molossians. This kingdom along the Aegean Sea in northwestern Greece, is most noted for its misfortune. A century and a half from this date, vengeful Romans would enslave one-hundred and fifty thousand Molossians in the process of annexing their land. But on this day, Alexander continued north into Illyria, which wasn’t the brightest move since he had fought against them the previous year. Illyrian was also Hellenistic, and thus as likely to be allied with as antagonistic toward their brethren. At the time, this kingdom bordered the Adriatic Sea in the Balkans, stretching from present day Albania to Croatia and including Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Without conflict or conquest, the Goat in Dany’el’s prophecy, now age twenty, left two years after his strategic retreat, traveling back to meet his father in Macedonia.

But all was not well. This was not Camelot. The Persian governor of Caria, Pixodarus had just offered his eldest daughter to Alexander’s half-brother, Philip Arrhidaeus. This favoritism caused Olympias to suspect that Philip was seeking to bypass her son once again. So had Alexander propose to her, marrying him instead. But getting wind of this, Philip squashed their wedding plans, simultaneously exiling most all of Alexander’s allies, while scolding his son. Turned out to be the wrong approach. His son didn’t take criticism well and his fourth wife wasn’t to be toyed with.

Immediately thereafter, Philip was assassinated by the captain of his bodyguards, Pausanias, while attending another wedding, this one down the coast in Aegae. And while there is no contemporary explanation for the coup, the most rational explanation is that it was inspired by Olympias and Alexander. The lone account of the intrigue was provided by Diodorus two centuries thereafter. He claims that Pausanias and Philip were lovers, but when Philip discarded the boy for one of General Attalus’s companions, the lover felt scorned and shamed. So Pausanias began publicly insulting his rival for the king’s affections. Embarrassed, Attalus’s friend committed suicide, enraging the general who had Pausanias raped. This, thereby, qualified Pausanias as the perfect pasty for Olympias and Alexander to play. But whatever the motivation, dead men would tell no tales. Moments after the murder, as Pausanias was making his escape, Alexander’s men came upon him and killed him, crucifying his corpse for public sympathy.

Alexander was proclaimed king by the aristocracy and army. And in true Greek and Roman fashion, he commenced his reign by eliminating potential rivals, executing his next of kin. Olympias also participated, having Cleopatra Eurydice and her daughter, Europa, burned alive. Lovely. Alexander only spared Arrhidaeus, who was mentally disabled as a result of being poisoned by Olympias. He then ordered General Attalus, who had insulted him, to be executed.

News of the king’s death roused Thebes, Athens, Thessaly, and Thrace to rebel – opting out of the treaty they had fashioned with Philip. Alexander rode off leading three-thousand Macedonian cavalry to Thessaly (located in central Greece along the shores of the Aegean). Finding the Thessalian army in a pass between Mount Olympus and Mount Ossa, he surprised them, forcing their surrender, by maneuvering his cavalry to their unprotected rear. Adding their cavalry to his own, the Goat strode south towards the Peloponnese. At Thermopylae, he negotiated an alliance, before riding on to Corinth, where he was afforded the same Supreme Allied Commander title once bequeathed to his. Thereafter, Athens pleaded for peace.

Alexander’s next move was north. In 335 BCE he marched into Thrace (present-day Bulgaria and Romania), defeating the Thracian forces just north of the Macedonian border. He would fight the Triballi and Getae next, defeating them in the Balkans along the Danube. This would have put our Goat one-hundred miles north of present-day Macedonia. It would be as far northward from home as he would ever roam. From there, Alexander headed west, returning to Illyria, which borders the Aegean Sea north of Greece. And while he would also defeat his once hospitable host, this was as far west as Alexander would travel. From here, now that he had the northern and western frontier of Macedon secure, his every move would be south and east.

Immediately turning south, Alexander sought to suppress yet another Greek rebellion, this one perpetrated by Thebes again, and to a lesser degree, Athens. Alexander razed the city, distributing its land among its neighbors, and in the process prompting Athens to capitulate. It was an especially vicious tactic, one which Alexander would deploy over and over again. While imposing himself on others, given that he could have tried to be loved or feared, the Macedon always preferred fear.

With Greece secure, Alexander set off to engage Darius, crossing the Hellespont (known as the Dardanelles today) in 334 CE with just shy of fifty-thousand soldiers aboard one-hundred twenty ships. His army was comprised of troops from Macedon and other Greek city-states, a significant number of mercenaries, and feudally conscripted men and boys from Thrace, Paionia, and Illyria.

In his first largely symbolic act, the Macedon king threw a spear into Asian soil, declaring that it was his, a gift from the gods. The initial contact against an actual foe that could return his volley occurred at Granicus, near the site of ancient Troy (on the Aegean Sea just south of the Dardanelles). Alexander was reliving the Iliad.

This battle was notable for a number of reasons. A substantial portion of the opposing force, including their leader, Memnon, were Greek mercenaries. Also interesting, Alexander received a debilitating blow inflicted by a Persian nobleman as the battle began, and only survived because one of his men intervened. But nonetheless, by driving his cavalry into the heart of the Persian line, the Macedonians caused it to buckle, killing the opposing officers in the process. This prompted a Persian retreat, wherein four-thousand were killed, Immortals among them. This left the Greek mercenaries vulnerable. So they tried to surrender, laying down their arms, but Alexander would have none of it. He ordered his infantry to systematically murder eighteen-thousand unarmed Greeks, sending two-thousand back home as slaves to do hard labor in Macedon. Along with the slaves, the king sent three-hundred sets of Persian officer armor to the Parthenon as an oblation to Athena. It was hardly heroic.

At this point, Alexander accepted the surrender of the Persian provincial capital in Sardis, some one-hundred-fifty miles south of the battlefield, confiscating its treasury. He then proceeded along the Ionian coast, devoting four months to successfully besieging and capturing Halicarnassus. From there he proceeded further south, securing the Aegean cost of Persia. This course of action cut Persia off from all but one Aegean and Mediterranean port, and thus from resupply. But more importantly, it all but negated the vastly superior Persian fleet.

Now traveling due east along the southern Mediterranean coast of Asia Minor, in today’s Turkey, Alexander was able to convince the academic city of Termessos to surrender without a fight. Thereafter, in the ancient Phrygian capital of Gordium, Alexander “resolved” the heretofore unsolvable Gordian Knot, making him the stuff of legend. In actuality, it had nothing to do with intellect. Rather than unravel it, all he did was hack the knot apart with his sword.

Then in Tarsus, Paul’s hometown, Alexander learned that Darius was amassing a large army in Babylon. So recognizing that his prey would seek to deploy the Persian fleet to supply and equip his troops, our Goat dispatched General Parmenion with part of his army to the Gulf of Issus, the one remaining Persian port in the Mediterranean. It is located just above the modern border between Turkey and Syria. At the same time, Darius was fast approaching from the southwest.

Meeting up with Parmenion south of Issus, Alexander positioned his troops in the Pass of Jonah, which Darius circumnavigated, fooling the Macedon king. Arriving in Issus unopposed, Darius promptly cut off the hands of those Alexander had left at the port. Darius also recognized that by bypassing his foe’s trap, he had maneuvered his superior army to the Macedon rear, effectively blocking their supply lines.

Thereupon, Darius moved south and Alexander north, meeting at the Pinarus River – a battlefield way too small to accommodate the Persian army, which consisted of seventy-thousand Peltasts, and ten-thousand each Immortals, Greek mercenaries, and cavalry. The Macedon army was half that size.

Advancing through the Pillar of Jonah, Alexander led his Companion cavalry. He set his Thessalian cavalry on the left of his Phalanx with Parmenion in command. The Persian cavalry crossed the river and charged directly into Parmenion’s troops, attacking the enemy’s right flank as they had near Troy. And again, Alexander, rather than reinforcing his outmanned comrade, charged into the center of the Persian line, causing Darius to flee. But then as he would do in the next engagement, rather than pursuing and finishing his rival, Alexander returned to rescue portions of his army that were now vulnerable. He accomplished this by flanking the opposing Greek mercenaries. The remaining Persian troops, noticing that their king had retreated, abandoned their positions and were slaughtered as they fled. The Greek cavalry pursued them until dark, killing untold thousands.

As the battle concluded, Alexander captured Darius’s wife, his daughters, one of which he married, his mother, and the Persian war chest, including untold riches. Darius immediately offered Alexander a treaty that included all of the lands the Persians had already lost and a ransom of ten-thousand talents ($250 million) for his family. But the Macedon king replied by saying that he was now king of Asia, and he alone decided territorial divisions.

The Siege of Tyre followed. As an island city off the Phoenician coast, it was impervious to his army. So after squandering seven months pursuing a blockade, and sacrificing his own men, Alexander built a causeway that finally allowed his army to breach the city’s fortifications. But our Goat had squandered so much time seeking the treasure of the city, when he finally prevailed he massacred eight-thousand men and boys, crucifying two-thousand more on the beach. He then enslaved the remaining thirty-thousand residents, mostly women and children, and sold them as if they were his property in chains.

Now an egomaniac and savage, Alexander was out of control. Even when Darius offered to surrender unconditionally, the Macedon refused, preferring to hunt him down and kill him. Darius would offer Alexander all of Persia west of the Euphrates River and a ransom of thirty-thousand talents ($750 million) for his family, excluding his eldest daughter, whom he ceded to his rival. But it wasn’t enough. Nothing would satisfy the man who would be god.

Alexander proceeded to take control of Syria and Phoenicia. After the horror of Tyre, most every city, community, and town en route to Egypt surrendered without a fight – with the exception of Gaza. The elevated geography and the heavy fortifications caused the Macedonian engineers to tell Alexander that the Egyptian outpost was unassailable. But Alexander, believing that he was a god, anticipated a miracle. Three assaults later and at the loss of many men, the Greeks succeeded. And as in Tyre, every man was systematically exterminated while every woman and child was sold into slavery. It wasn’t much of a legacy for the leader of a nation considered the birthplace of democracy, of political freedom, and philosophy.

With advanced billing, the Greek killing machine proceeded into Egypt in late 332 BCE. Hearing what had happened to their compatriots next door in Gaza, Egyptians hailed Alexander as the “Master of the Universe.” He was proclaimed: “Son of Amun.” So thrilled with his new identity, Alexander promoted the myth for the remainder of his life that he was the son of “Zeus – Ammon,” adorning himself with “Ram’s Horns” as a symbol of his divinity, while minting coins which addressed him as such.

Leaving Egypt in 331 BCE, the murderous man who would be god marched northeast toward Mesopotamia where he would defeat Darius a final time. And since we have already reviewed the prelude, tactics, and aftermath of this battle, let’s pick up the story with what happened next. Just as this prophecy commenced in Susa, that is where Alexander headed after vanquishing his adversary. It is in Susa that our Goat captured the treasure, over one billion dollars, that prompted God to speak of his wealth. But it wasn’t enough. Alexander raced to Persepolis, where he allowed his troops to loot the city for months days while he luxuriated in the Palace of Xerxes, once again counting the talents in the city’s treasury as his own. Thereafter, he had his men burn what they could not carry away.

It was only then that Alexander decided to pursue Darius. He initially chased him into Media and then throughout Parthia. It was then that Darius, in the midst of trying to stir his surviving troops, was murdered by Bessus, one of his generals, depriving the Macedon of the life he most wanted to take. Legend has it that Bessus stabbed Darius just as Alexander strode across the horizon. The reason for the myth is that Alexander would have us believe that with his dying breath, Darius named him to be his successor to the Persian Achaemenid Empire. He then gave him a regal and royal funeral, controlling every aspect of his demise. I suspect he did so to made the coward look heroic, thereby magnifying his own accomplishment. And also there was the matter of Darius’s daughters, wife, and mother, all of whom were now part of the Goat’s entourage.  

With Darius dead and buried, Alexander decided to toy with Bessus. Leading his army on a grand tour of central Asia, Alexander founded a succession of new cities along the way, all of which he named “Alexandria.” Two of these included Kandahar, Afghanistan and Furthest Alexandria in Tajikistan. Much of his time, however, was spent ineffectually chasing his foe over the mountains and through the valleys of Parthia and Scythia in today’s Afghanistan – traversing the inhospitable realm from west to east and south to north to no avail. He neither conquered the place nor confronted his new rival.

Ultimately, Bessus was betrayed in 329 by the Spitamenes, a nomadic militia, who handed him over to Ptolemy for execution. This was evidently unsatisfactory for Alexander, so he went after the Spitamenes and their ilk, the Scythians, defeating both along the borders of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan, not far from Tashkent. It was hardly a blaze of glory, however. Around twelve-hundred adversarial nomads were ultimately pinned down, surrounded, and killed, with one-hundred-fifty migrants enslaved.

But the Goat was duly impressed. He bequeathed upon himself the Persian title “Shah-an-shah – King of Kings.” He changed from Greek to Persian attire. Those who sought an audience with him were required to kiss his ring and prostrate themselves to the ground in his presence. He became Allah.

As such, Alexander, when not pursuing a foreign foe turned on his own. He executed one of his senior officers for failing to disclose a potential conspiracy. He then killed his father to preclude him from seeking revenge. Then he murdered the man who saved his life during his first encounter with the Persians near ancient Troy. Evidently, Cleitus the Black was critical of Alexander pretending to be a god.

Murdering his own men grew wearisome, and our Goat wanted to kick up his heels and lock his horns one last time. So he decided to conquer India. He began by inviting the chieftains of Gandhara, in today’s Pakistan, to submit to his authority. Some complied while others refused. Never a fan of freewill, Alexander led his forces against those tribes which were unwilling to submit, encountering them in the Swat Valley. While the Goat was wounded in the shoulder by an arrow, his troops prevailed over the un-Islamic (unwilling to submit) Pakistanis. Moving on to the Fort of Massaga, after days of bloody fighting, the Goat was wounded yet again, this time in the ankle. Aggravated, Alexander slaughtered the entire population, after which, he buried the city. It has never been found.

Gimpy and limping, the Goat scuffled for the last time against King Porus of the Hindu Paurava Kingdom in the Punjab of today’s Pakistan. The only reason for fighting him was that he was in the way. And other than for the men who died there, it was a meaningless confrontation. Alexander lost more men than in any other battle – and for nothing. While he was able to annex the Punjab into Persia, he didn’t. Instead he gave Porus some of Persia because he liked the way he fought. In this regard, it is interesting to note that Porus challenged Alexander lone combat. But when Alexander took the bait and charged, he fell off of his horse in the ensuing duel. Then cheating the intent, the Macedon’s bodyguards intervened, rescuing their fallen king while capturing Porus. Thereupon, the Pakistanis surrendered in the middle of a battlefield of twenty-four thousand dead and dying combatants. Both of Porus’s sons were killed that day and nine-thousand men were captured and enslaved.

Alexander would found several cities in the region, thereafter, naming one after his horse, Bucephalus. Another he called “Nicaea,” after the Greek god of Victory, Nike. While this is a different Nicaea than the one celebrated by Christians, they were both named after the same Greek god, providing a telling perspective on the Nicaean Creed.

Weary of the carnage, disgusted by Alexander’s antics, the Goat’s army rebelled shortly thereafter. The prospect of giving the booty to a defeated foe rather than distributing the spoils among the victors may also have played into the equation. They may also have surmised that the multitudes of Indians now facing them across the Ganges River were far too numerous to fight. But either way, as they glared across the river, Alexander’s army mutinied in Bangladesh.

On their long day’s journey through hell, Alexander lost a substantial portion of his arm in the Gedrosian Desert in southern Iran before once again arriving in Susa. Along the way, to keep moral up, the Goat assassinated anyone who complained. It must not have worked, because his troops mutinied again in Opis. Alexander gave appointed Persians in their place. When they begged for his forgiveness, the King of Kings proposed a drunken orgy where Macedonian men were coupled with the finest Persian women.

Thereafter, Alexander traveled to Ecbatana to retrieve the billion dollar Persian treasure he had stashed there for safekeeping. But all the money in the world couldn’t mend his broken heart. Alexander’s lover, Hephaestion, died, devastating the bisexual warrior. He issued a public decree for mourning as if anyone else cared that his boyfriend was no longer available.

Leaving Susa for Babylon broken hearted, Alexander began planning new conquests. First among them would be Arabia. If his men were cowered at the Ganges River at the sight of too many combatants, there wasn’t so much as a stream or horde in the most foreboding of deserts. But it would be for naught. He would die in the Palace of Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon at age thirty-two. But he would not leave this world unscathed. He founded scores of cities that bore his name, and in each he established Greek colonists who disseminated his culture, philosophy, and religion, leaving a prevalent legacy throughout Rome, but especially within the Byzantine Empire and Christianity.

As we move deeper into Dany’el’s second prophetic vision, we are reminded, as was the case in Yasha’yah 14, that the basis of Satan’s rebellion was pride. The spirit now manifest in the Beast, like Alexander from whose legacy he emerged, exalted himself above the Most High. Also consistent with what we were told in Yasha’yah, Heylel ben Shachar doesn’t fall alone, but takes a considerable number of the heavenly host with him.

“And it boasted, exalting itself (wa gadal – grew arrogant) as far as and up to the eternal (‘ad) spiritual implements of (tsaba’ – vast array of envoys and messengers serving in) the heavenly realm (ha shamaym – the abode of God), then causing them to fall (wa naphal – out of control, it caused them to be cast out of a higher place to a lower position, falling prostrate) to earth (‘erest – to the material realm) from (min) those serving as spiritual implements (tsaba’ – vast array of envoys and messengers deployed in a command and control construct) and from the light of heavenly powers (wa min ha kowkab – out of the highest most enlightened place). As an aggressor seeking to profane and destroy, it brought great harm to them (wa ramac – causing others to be buried in a grave they will be crushed and concealed).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:10)

Most bible translations, slavishly parroting the familiar phrasing of the King James Version, present the impossible, that the beast “waxed so great” that his ego brought “the stars to the earth.” What they fail to consider is that spiritual beings are comprised of light. Further, as is the case with men and women, spirits who follow Satan bring significant harm upon themselves, and while they are not “trampled” or “stamped upon” as spiritual, non-material beings, they are “profaned,” and thus separated and “concealed” from God.

These fallen spiritual implements are more commonly known as “demons,” even though, other than their status, they are indistinguishable from the spiritual messengers typically referred to as “angels.” They are, however, immortal. So the harm they have brought upon themselves as a result of profaning and destroying the things of God is to be eternally crushed in the black hole that is the inescapable prison of She’owl.

Spiritual messengers, called mal’ak in Hebrew, are vastly more powerful than humans because they are comprised of light, which is energy. But they are considerably inferior to humans as well, because they were not afforded freewill. And without it, they can neither love nor be creative. They simply serve, following orders. Considering where they are and whom they are assisting, there are few things better than being one of Yahowah’s implements and envoys, so we ought not feel sorry for them. But, those of us who accept the terms and conditions of the Covenant become God’s children, and as such are royalty, affording us an unlimited array of possibilities. And that comparison is one that helps us understand their situation. The king and his family are free to do, to say, and to go whatever and wherever they want – as are we. But the king’s subjects are not. As is the case with the mal’ak, should they disobey an order or transgress an edict, they will be hunted down and deprived of either their property, their liberty, or their life. A private in the military who takes leave without permission will find himself in the brink.

As humans, at least from God’s perspective, we can do and say whatever, and go wherever we would like. And so long as we don’t continuously and deliberately lead people away from Yah by deceiving them, there is no consequence. Life will end in death. There will be no punishment for disregarding the Towrah’s instructions. And that is because we were given freewill. But with “mal’ak – spiritual messengers,” without freewill, there is a penalty for rebelling against God. Satan and those who followed him will be separated from God and incarcerated forever.

The reason Yahowah is revealing this to us at this time is because the Beast of the Tribulation does not operate alone. As was the case with Alexander, Rome, Paul, and the Church, these beasts are aided and abetted by Satan and his fellow mutineers. Their rhetoric is inspired by them. Their lives are guided by them. Miraculous deeds are facilitated by them.

The Goat was an exemplar of the Beast. He proclaimed himself the “Son of God,” the “King of Kings,” and “Master of the Universe.” He was an absolute dictator who sought to control the world through force. Those who thought to defy his wishes or rebel against his influence were exterminated. Death and destruction were his constant companions. His family was conniving, paranoid, and dysfunctional. And in his world, the military, the government, his religion, and his economic scheme were indistinguishable, inseparable, and imposed. And let’s not forget the ego. A man sought to be god.

As we move ever closer to the Tribulation, we should expect to hear and see the Adversary’s agenda in men’s words and deeds. We should expect an increase in control, deception, and death. We should expect a decrease in liberty, truth, and that which is conducive to life.

Satan has an ego. He wants to be seen as the Lord, to be worshiped as a god. To accomplish this, he influences the human experience by corrupting and counterfeiting Yahowah’s Word, pretending to be Yahowsha’. It is in this very way that he revealed himself to Paul on the road to Damascus, thereby initiating the most effective and popular counterfeit in human history – Christianity. But as we will discover when we examine Yahowah’s prophecy in Yasha’yah / Isaiah 17, Damascus will be destroyed.

This next statement reveals two things about Yahowsha’, the Prince of Reconciliation, that missed by most Christians. First, He is the “eternal witness,” the living manifestation of Yahowah’s testimony, and thus represents the Towrah. Second, by referring to Him as the “perfect sacrificial offering,” Yahowsha’ is the Lamb of Pesach, the Un-Yeasted Bread of Matsah, the Firstborn Child of Bikuwrym, and the Enriching Gift of Shabuw’ah.

The Adversary and his minions will prey upon the Witness aspect of Yahowsha’s nature, attacking the Word that defines Him. And they will claim that their proclamations, policies, and procedures are superior to those that framed Yahowsha’s mission.

“And even up to the eternal, preying upon the witness of (wa ‘ad) the Prince (sar – the patron who has the power to prevail, to reign, to govern, and to lead (a reference to Yahowsha’ in Yasha’yah 9:6)) of the spiritual implements (ha tsaba’ – of the vast array of envoys and messengers who serve), he was boastful and arrogant (gadal – he sought glory and status). Then from Him, separating himself (wa min), he rebelled against, exalting himself above (ruwm – he took action, arrogantly elevating his status beyond, imprudently haughty toward (the subject in the hiphil and hophal stems is caused or influenced by another to force the object of the verb to participate in the action as an understudy while the perfect conjugation reveals that this action is constrained to a specific and limited period of time)) the enduring means to reach out, perfect, and grow forevermore (ha tamyd – the eternal means to continual innocence and perpetual growth). And so (wa) the predetermined basis and firmly established site (makown – the specific place prepared to serve as the enduring foundation of) of His Sanctuary (miqdash – His Temple which is Set Apart) was totally cast aside (shalak – it was tossed away (third person masculine singular in the hophal stem indicates that someone who wanted the Prince to become his understudy influenced the beast, while the perfect conjugation limits the duration of his influence)).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:11)

In this passage, biblical translators are wont to make ‘ad mean “against.” And yet in the preceding revelation, the Aramaic version of the word was used by Dany’el to describe the Almighty, signifying that He has always existed. In order of preference, the letters Ayn Dalet can convey: “eternal and forever,” “up to and until,” “to prey upon a foe,” or “testimony and witness.” Considering these many options, the safest choice is to incorporate every potential affinity into the translation. And given that they all seem to apply, it’s best not to shortchange God.

The “sar – Prince” is a direct reference to Yasha’yah / Isaiah 9:6, where “the child who is born to us and the Son who is given to us” is the “Prince of Reconciliation.” And in that prophetic proclamation, Yahowsha’ is presented as the future manifestation of Almighty God who will facilitate our salvation. Therefore, this beast is exalting himself above the Most High, a boast ascribed to Satan in Yasha’yah 14, thereby identifying this Beast as the Adversary.

Adding to the confusion, the preponderance of English bibles render ha tamyd as either “the daily sacrifice” or “the regular sacrifice,” even though tamyd doesn’t speak of “daily,” “regular,” or “sacrifice.” A cursory investigation of tamyd reveals that it conveys “continuous, constant, uninterrupted, enduring, and eternal,” describing something which is “forevermore into perpetuity.” In this case, and in the next two, it follows the definite article as if a noun but it was spoken as an adverb, one which does not appear to modify the nearest verb, which was “ruwm – rebelled against.” The same failed connection is also present with the final deployment of ha tamyd, where it neither modifies “dabar – spoke” or “shamem – stupefies.” So we have a challenge necessitating further evaluation.

Tamyd is related to tamym, which addresses that which is “totally perfect, wholly without blemish, and entirely complete.” Tamym is “a factual and truthful approach to innocence, becoming upright with integrity.” It in turn is based upon tamam, which is the word Yahowah uses in connection with participating in His Covenant when He asks us to “walk to Him and become perfect.”

And while these are interesting clues, the answer to our quest may be found in the verbal root of tamyd, which means “to reach out and to stretch out, extending and elongating that which increases and facilitates growth.” Bringing all of these insights together, especially in this context, ha tamyd is Yahowah extending Himself and reaching out to us through Yahowsha’ to render us totally perfect, helping us continuously grow, enduring forever, constantly increasing in every way. This is what He accomplished during His fulfillment of Pesach, Matsah, Bikuwrym, and Shabuw’ah.

As we proceed through the text of the last statement, we are confronted by another disparity between popular translations and the words presented in the text. When scribed in the third person masculine singular, wa min typically begins a new sentence and conveys either “Then from Him” or “And separating himself.” The verb which follows, ruwm, was also scribed in the third person masculine, and therefore reveals “he rebelled, exalting himself above” someone or something. Ruwm speaks of “arrogance in action” and of “inappropriately elevating one’s status beyond what is prudent.” This known, I’m at a loss to explain the King James Version, the New American Standard Bible, and the New Living Translation, which suggest that wa min ruwm convey either: “by him the daily sacrifice was taken away,” “and by it removed the regular sacrifice from Him,” or “by canceling the daily sacrifices offered to him.” But at least you are aware of these variations and are better equipped to determine which is more likely accurate.

The conclusion of this statement is intriguing. Maqowm speaks of an “established place where someone takes a stand.” It is the very “foundation” upon which everything is built. And since maqowm is addressing Yahowah’s Sanctuary, we should expect to see the Towrahless One construct a shrine in a different location for a different purpose.

What follows is already in place. Good Friday has replaced Passover. Easter Sunday has replaced Firstborn Children. Halloween has replaced Trumpets. Thanksgiving has replaced Reconciliations. Christmas has replaced Shelters. Communion and the Eucharist have replaced Un-Yeasted Bread. The myth of Dionysus inherent in the Christian caricature of “Jesus Christ” has replaced the truth. Barely one in a million people follow Yahowsha’s example and respond to Yahowah’s invitation and meet with Him on the days He as designated for the reason He articulated.

So while there may be some additional new patriotic, political, and religious, holidays that the world will celebrate, so long as most miss meeting with Yah when He has requested, it won’t make any difference.

“And the spiritual implements (wa tsaba’ – of the vast array of envoys and messengers now engaged in the battle) were given over to the control of another (nathan) against (‘al) the enduring means to reach out, perfect, and grow forevermore (ha thamyd – the uninterrupted and eternal means to continual innocence and perpetual growth). In rebellion (ba pesha’ – in revolt, to step out in clear defiance of authority, marching in a manner wholly contrary to the established standard), they were certainly cast down (shalak ‘emeth – they were truthfully and accordingly thrown out) to the earth (‘erets – to the material realm). And they engaged (wa ‘asah – they acted for a constrained period of time (qal perfect)) to accomplish their goal (wa tsalah – to advance their cause (in the hiphil perfect, the fallen implements for a limited period of time will cause those they influence to view success similarly)).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:12)

As a consequence of rebelling, Satan and his fallen cadre of demons were cast out of the abode of God and down to earth where they have sought to mislead mankind into worshipping them as if they were gods. Their penalty for doing this will be eternal incarceration. And as Yahowah has indicated, they have accomplished their goal. As few as one in a million souls chooses to engage in the Covenant.

There are a variety of ways Satan misleads, but most involve misinformation, corruption, half-truths, and counterfeit. And his favorite medium is religion, although he is also effective in academia, philosophy, patriotism, politics, economic schemes, and within the military. His most effective voices have been Paul, Hadrian, Akiba, Constantine, Theodosius, and Muhammad.

In this next pronouncement, “‘echad qadowsh – one of the Set Apart” represents a member of Yahowah’s Covenant family who was appalled by what he was witnessing along with Dany’el. Then by comparison, “‘echad qadowsh la ha palimony – the One specifically and uniquely Set-Apart,” is Yahowsha’ –the “spoken Word.” One is asking the other how long He is going to allow Satan and the Beast to stupefy the world regarding His nature and purpose – especially regarding His role during Pesach and Matsah leading to Bikuwrym. He also wants to know how long He is going to allow the set apart, His children who are still on Earth, to be tormented by this appalling cast of characters. The answer can be no longer than seven years, the entire length of the tribulation, but there is no reason to speculate because in a moment we will know precisely.

But before we evaluate this statement, a word of warning. This following translation differs substantially from those found in most English bibles. First, most don’t distinguish between “‘echad qadowsh – one of the set apart” and ‘echad qadowsh la ha palimony, which designates “one, singular and specific individual who is uniquely set apart.” They are wont to infer that one “saint” was overheard chatting with another “saint,” when there are no saints and one phrase is clearly distinct from the other.

Second, once again the preponderance of English bibles render ha tamyd as either “the daily sacrifice” or “the regular sacrifice,” even though tamyd doesn’t speak of “daily,” “regular,” or “sacrifice.” So once again, I’ve chosen to render it in accordance with its etymology.

While this is a lot to process, especially before we have even considered the passage, there is a third material variation between popular bible translations and what the words themselves reveal. The KJV, NASB, and NLT all render qodesh as “sanctuary” when the word actually addresses something which is “set apart,” as is the case with the “Ruwach Qodesh – Set-Apart Spirit” and the Covenant’s children, who are “set apart” from the world and unto God.

“And then I heard (wa shama’) one of the Set Apart (‘echad qadowsh – the first of the prepared and devoted ones) speaking (dabar – communicating using words and language), and he asked (‘amar – he said) of (la – while approaching) the One specifically and uniquely Set-Apart (‘echad qadowsh la ha palimony – the first, certain, particular, and most Set Apart), who spoke the Word (ha dabar – who declared the word), ‘For how long will this revelation regarding (matay chazown ‘ad – will the prophetic vision and communication of) the enduring means to reach out, perfect, and grow forevermore (ha tamyd – the eternal means to continual innocence and perpetual growth) and this revolting rebellion and transgression (wa ha pesha’ – and the defiant conflict and the offensive crime) which stupefies and devastates (shamem – ravages and ruins, leaves destitute and deserted, astounds and appalls) last (matay), which allows (nathan – which causes) even the set apart (wa qodesh – the set-apart people, place, or sanctuary) and (wa) the spiritual implements (tsaba’ – the vast array of envoys and messengers who follow orders and engage in spiritual endeavors as implements) to be tread upon (miramac – to be trample, oppressed, and subjugated (presented as a noun, not a verb))?’” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:13)

The Beast in an alliance with Satan are defiantly rebelling against God in the most devastating and stupefying manner, astounding and ravaging the world by corrupting the means to salvation. This is precisely what Christianity has done, negating what believers seek by replacing Yahowah’s means to eternal life with religious alternatives. Even worse, this statement infers that the Beast will revisit the edicts of Rome and its Church, outlawing Yahowah’s Feasts while oppressing His people. We should expect a third iteration of Hadrian and Theodosius.

It is easy to see why those who are Towrah observant during this time will be persecuted, but the subjugation the Yah’s spiritual messengers is less obvious. I suspect that this is actual spiritual warfare, where the envoys assigned the tasks of conveying God’s message and protecting His children will be under constant attack.

“And He said to me (wa ‘amar ‘ely – then He provided this answer for me), ‘Until the sunsets and the sunrises over (‘ad ‘ereb ‘boqer – throughout the time of darkness without the light over the course of, as far as evening to morning, to the extent of dusk to dawn, extending from the bargain which precipitates the decline and desolation of the Arab Sunset until the arrival of the Light upon) two-thousand three hundred times (‘elephym wa shalyshy me’ah – thousands and three hundred (2,300 / 365 = 6.3 years: six years four months or 2,300 / 360 = 6.5 years: six years six months)), then the set apart (qodesh – the set-apart people, place, or sanctuary) will be completely vindicated (tsadaq – (in the niphal stem, perfect conjugation, and consecutive mood, the set apart will passively, yet actually, be proven totally innocent, becoming righteous as a result of the decisions they have made)).’” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:14)

In Dany’el 9, we are provided with an accounting that specifies the exact interval of time between the official Babylonian decree freeing Yisra’elites to return and rebuild the Temple to the precise day the living manifestation of the Temple, Yahowsha’, will arrive in Yaruwshalaim as the Passover Lamb. That accounting was predicated upon a 360-day prophetic year. Therefore, just as Babylon endured 66 years, its tarnished legacy will darken our world for another six years and six months. And since Yahowsha’ told Yahowchanan that the number associated with the Beast will be 666, it is interesting to note that 666 years transpired between the time Yahowah told Chabaquwq / Habakkuk that Sha’uwl, known to Christians as “Paul,” would be the “plague of death,” and the time the prototype for the Beast penned his first poisoned epistle. Six is the number of man, a carbon-based life form (atomic number 6) created on the sixth day. Triple sixes would therefore represent a beast of a man possessed by the same demon that plagued Paul, with this evil union striving to reestablish all that was wrong with Babylon.

Since it is now extremely relevant, the prophetic warning issued 666 years before Sha’uwl / Paul beguiled the world reads...

“Pay attention, he will be puffed up with false pride. His soul, it is not right nor straightforward in him. So, through trust and reliance, by being firmly established and upheld by that which is dependable and truthful, those who are upright and vindicated live

Moreover, because the intoxicating wine and inebriating spirit of the man of deceptive infidelity and treacherous betrayal is a high-minded moral failure, and his is arrogant and meritless presumption, he will not rest, find peace, nor live, whoever is open to the broad path, the duplicitous and improper way, associated with Sha’uwl.

He and his soul are like the plague of death. And so those who are brought together by him, receiving him, will never be satisfied. All of the Gentiles will gather together unto him, all of the people from different races and nations in different places.

But they do not ask questions, any of them, about him. Terse references to the word they lift up as taunts to ridicule, with implied associations that mock, controlling through comparison and counterfeit, along with allusive sayings with derisive words arrogantly conveyed.

There are hard and perplexing questions which need to be asked of him, and double dealings to be known regarding him. So they should say, ‘Woe to the one who claims to be great so as to increase his offspring, acting like a rabbi, when neither apply to him. For how long will they make pledges based upon his significance, becoming burdened by his testimony?’” (Chabaquwq / Embrace This / Habakkuk 2:4-6)

Affirming that Paul’s given name was Sha’uwl, and that the spirit he met on the road to Damascus cited Dionysus, we find...“I heard a voice saying to me in the Hebrew language, ‘Sha’uwl, Sha’uwl, Why are you actually pursuing me, following me, and really striving with such intense effort to reach me? It’s hard, demanding, difficult, and intolerable for you to resist against the goad.” (Acts 26:14)

Also relevant considering what we have just learned, is Paul’s admission that he was demon-possessed... “And of the superiority of the magnificent and awe-inspiring aspects of the revelations, therefore, it should be self-evident, in order to not become overly proud, exalting myself beyond what would be justified, there was given to me a sharp goad and troubling thorn in the body, a messenger of Satan, in order to strike and restrain me.” (2 Corinthians 12:7)

The Beast is going to baffle Christians. He will sound and act like one of them. They will find his rhetoric appealing and his edicts inviting.

We have been deluged with insights into our past and future. So a little Divine guidance is in order so that we can properly establish our bearings.

“And while I, Dany’el, was seeing and considering (wa hayah ba ra’ah ‘any Dany’el – then it came to be while being shown and viewing, I, Dany’el) the revelation (‘eth ha chazown – everything associated with the divine visual prophetic communication), I desired and sought (wa baqas – I wanted and sought out (the piel imperfect paragogic reveals that Dany’el consistently chose of his own freewill to engage in such a way that it would continually bring about)) understanding (bynah – discernment derived from making perceptive connections between the things which have been observed and exercising good judgment regarding what has been revealed leading to wisdom, thereby enabling skillful reactions and proper responses to life situations).

And behold (wa hineh – look then and there, paying especially close attention), present and standing before me (‘amad la neged – taking a stand as a counterpart for me to approach) was someone similar in appearance (ka mara’ah – corresponding to a visual manifestation, a pattern, phenomenon, and design which is obvious and lucid, observable and comprehensible; from ra’ah – to be seen, inspected, perceived, and considered) to an exceptional individual being (geber – an especially capable and empowered male individual with human characteristics).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:15)

This geber is Gabry’el, the mighty messenger of Yahowah. He is doing what he was conceived to accomplish.

“I heard the voice (wa shama’ qowl – I listened to the sound of verbal communication) associated with a person (‘adam – of a man) providing understanding by making connections within (bayn – bringing it all together to reveal rational insights which lead to discernment and good judgment, leading to a proper and reasoned response at) ‘Uwlay (‘Uwlay – meaning Foolish Leaders; from ‘ewyl – one who ignorantly and irrationally mocks others when he, himself, is guilty) and he, Gabry’el (wa Gabry’el – then the Almighty’s exceptionally capable and empowered individual being; a compound of geber and ‘el), provided an invitation to be called out and to meet (qara’ – he announced a summons, designating what should be read and recited, calling out a welcome to invited guests) by him saying (wa ‘amar – and he answered, proclaiming, promising, and declaring), ‘Understand, making informed and reasonable connections (byn – observe, consider, and discern so as to be intelligent through diligently making accurate and logical associations between related things (scribed in the hiphil stem and imperative mood, Gabry’el is encouraging and preparing us to know and understand what he knows and understands so as)) to approach according to this (la halaz ‘eth – coming near through demonstrated future references associated with), the pattern of clear and comprehensible revelations (ha mara’ah – the obvious, apparent, and lucid visual forms and phenomenon which can be readily observed and easily understood).’” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:16)

The phrasing of this announcement suggests that it represents more than just an explanation. With understanding comes an invitation to meet with God. The means to approach Him becomes comprehensible when we make reasonable connections regarding the things we are learning.

“And he came (wa bow’), positioning himself right beside me (‘omed ‘etsel), but in the process of coming to me (wa ba bow’), I became terrified (ba’ath – afraid, overwhelmed, and fearful, trembling), and so I fell prostrate on my face (wa naphal ‘al panah). Then he said to me (wa ‘amar ‘el), ‘Use the ability to closely examine and carefully consider information to comprehend, to teach and instruct, making connections which lead to understanding (byn – be observant and discerning, deriving wisdom through intelligent connections), child of mankind (ben ‘adam – son of man) because indeed (ky), the prophetic revelation (ha chazown – the communicative vision) is for events transpiring toward the end of time (la ‘eth qets – is for things which will occur near the completion of this duration of time).’” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:17)

Much of what has been revealed occurred long ago, so for these things to transpire again in our future, the horrible history of Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome will be reprised, tormenting the world once again during last days. And that makes everything we have learned about these beasts relevant, with history prophetic and poised to repeat itself.

“Then in the process of sharing the Word with me (wa ba dabar ‘im – and along with him speaking with me (in the piel perfect, Gabry’el enabled Dany’el to fully comprehend the communication)) while I was lying face down on the ground (radam ‘al paneh ‘erets – as I lie still, my face in the dirt), he touched me (naga’ ba – he made contact with me) and he helped me stand (wa ‘amad – he encouraged and assisted me so that I could stand forever (in the hiphil stem and imperfect conjugation, Gabry’el enabled Dany’el to be more like him, functioning as an understudy, participating in the ongoing process of standing upright, of taking a stand, and of being eternally present, accounted for, and sustained, thereby enduring forever)), with me upright alongside God at my assigned post (‘al ‘omed – with me standing up for the Almighty’s position and before the Mighty One’s place for taking a stand).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:18)

Since God, Himself, doesn’t want us bowing down before Him, the greatest of His messengers is opposed to it as well. Everything Yahowah has said and done was designed to lift us up so that we could stand. The entire purpose is defeated when we fall back down.

“And he said (wa ‘amar), ‘Look at me (hineh – look up and pay attention to me). I will help you come to know and understand (yada’ – I will provide information which will facilitate familiarity and awareness, revealing what can be perceived though discerning discovery (in the hiphil stem the speaker is enabling the listener to participate in the voyage of discovery, and in the participle form, the listener is being transformed into a perceptive individual who knows and understands), accordingly (‘eth), that which will occur (‘asher hayah) during the final period (ba ‘acharyth – in the distant future and throughout the last days) of abominable denunciations and extreme indignation (ha za’am – of acute annoyance and righteous anger and of infuriating aggravation and warranted wrath; from za’am – of abhorrent and defiant speech), which is surely and truly forthcoming leading up to (ky la) the final Appointed Meeting Time (qets mow’ed – the concluding designated Mow’ed).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:19)

When we “look” at God’s message and messenger we come to know. Then when we think, making the proper connections, we come to understand. There are no shortcuts and no other way. This is important because without knowing there can be no trust and without understanding reliance is impossible – wholly negating the merit of freewill and the path home God has provided.

The “abominable denunciations” which will plague the last days are all designed to corrupt Yahowah’s message, confusing the gullible so that they are caught unaware. In this regard, not only with the Beast criminalize the observation of Yahowah’s Appointed Meeting Times, he will impose his own plan, causing the preponderance of people to be caught by surprise when God returns on His schedule. And rather than greeting Him as one of His children on Yowm Kippurym, the Day of Reconciliation, in Year 6000 Yah (sunset in Yaruwshalaim on October 2nd, 2033), they will be incinerated by His Light. God has a plan. It is set in stone. He will remain Towrah observant, doing what He has promised, when He has promised, where He has promised.

Recognizing that everything we have considered will transpire again, we now know where we should look in our past to see our future.

“The ram (ha ‘ayl – the ruler) which you saw (‘asher ra’ah), the Lord of (ba’al – the one owning and possessing, the master who controls) the two horns (ha qerenym – the two powers), are the kings (melek – governments and kingdoms) of Maday / Media (Maday – meaning Middle Land, transliterated Media, ancient nation south of the Caspian Sea in today’s north-central Iran between Assyria and Persia) and (wa) Parac / Persia (Parac – meaning Tear Apart, Break Up, and Divide, transliterated Persia, located in today’s southwest Iran).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:20)

Before we reflect upon Median and Persian history, keep in mind that this prophecy was revealed to Dany’el in 553 BCE in Babylon. The Assyrians had been conquered by his captors fifty-seven years earlier – which is why that former superpower wasn’t included in this prophecy. But the Medes, a nation born out of the Assyrian defeat, were still formidable as was Babylon. And yet within five years, Persia would conquer Media and within sixteen years, they would control Babylonia.

After the fall of the Assyrian Empire, between 616 and 605 BCE, the first Median state was formed. Along with Babylonia, Lydia, and Egypt, Media became one of the four powers of its day. It grew by annexing considerable territory, much of it coming as a result of its role in the capture of Nineveh. But Media couldn’t handle prosperity. The kingdom was conquered in 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great, thereby establishing the Persian Achaemenid Empire. Interesting, however, during their brief flirtation with the flame of power, the Medes, like Constantine nearly a millennia later, marched to Mithras – the Unconquerable Sun.

Under Cyrus, who reigned from 559 to 530 BCE, the Persians defeated Lydia in 547 and Babylonia in 539. After moving his capital to Babylon, Cyrus expanded his empire to rule over significant portions of the ancient world. By 500 BCE, following the conquest of Egypt in 525 BCE, Persia stretched from the Indus Valley in the east (running through today’s India, Pakistan, and China) to Thrace in the north (comprised of portions of today’s Bulgaria, northwestern Turkey, and northeastern Greece), and from Macedonia in the west (which at the time stretched from the Adriatic to the Aegean and across the Balkans) to Libya, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and all of Turkey along the Mediterranean Sea. At its heart it covered all of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, the northern rim of Arabia, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, as well as much of the Caucasus region around the Caspian Sea. The Persians controlled eight million square miles and fifty million people.

Persia would be most noted for its antagonism toward the Greek city states, its emancipation of Jewish slaves from Babylon, and for its insistence on an official language, in their case, Aramaic. As we have learned, Persia was ultimately defeated by Alexander the Great following the Macedonian’s invasion in 334 BCE. The kingdom, which was then under the dominion of Darius III, was divided into the Ptolemaic Kingdom and the Seleucid Empire following Alexander’s death.

Some might say, as was the case with Rome incorporating Greek philosophy, Babylonia conquered Persia, because the Persians were quickly infected with the Babylonian religion, just as the Romans fell prey to Greek thinking. Babylon became Persia and Persia became Greece. Greece became Rome as surely as Rome became Christianity.

Remembering that this prophecy was revealed two hundred years before these events transpired, we now find Gabry’el identifying the goat as Greece. But as was the case with this empire, it was an extension of one man that history would consider especially great. This then is the tale of Alexander the Great, circa 356 to 323 BCE.

“And the goat (wa ha tsaphyr), the powerful horned male (ha sa’yr), is the king (melek – ruler of the government and kingdom) of Yowan / Ionian Greece (Yowan – meaning to Imbibe Wine, transliterated Ionian, and thus Greece). The great horn (wa ha qeren ha gadowl – and the most important leader) which is positioned between (‘asher byn) its eyes (‘ayn) is the first and foremost (huw’ ha ri’shown) king (melek).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:21)

The Assyrians referred to Greece as Yowanu, from which we get Ionians. Similarly, the Egyptians called Greece Yawana. In Greek, Greece was known as “Ιωυαν – Ioean” and “Ἑλλάς – Ellas,” further affirming the identity of this nation and leader.

Since it is instructive, Yowan is initially listed as the grandson of Noah through Yapheth in Bare’syth 10:2, along with other tawdry characters: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. Yawan is associated with Greece and associated islands in Yasha’yah 66:19, when Yahowah says that Yowan and its distant isles have not yet heard of His renown. Yachezq’el / Ezekiel then says that Yowan, like Tubal and Meshech (Turkey), were merchants, trading men and brass vessels in their markets. Zakaryah / Zechariah, speaking of Yahowah’s relationship with Yahuwdah and Yisra’el, reveals that Yowan / Greece would “produce a mighty man with a sword” who would “come against His sons.”

Now addressing how the death of Alexander led not to succession, but instead to the unauthorized division of his conquests among the generals who had served under him, we find the cause of this controversial man’s death...

“And he was injured by internal membranes rupturing (wa ha shabar – he was broken, suffering ruptures that shattered him, he was afflicted, suffering physical harm, crushed, smashed, and destroyed, breaking down and ceasing to exist; the same three letters can be vocalized sheber – crippling injury which destroys by breaking apart). And then four presented and appointed themselves (wa ‘amad ‘arba’ – four arose and stood up, taking a stand by placing themselves in charge) in his place (tachath – instead of him after being under him (note: the pronoun is actually feminine because it is addressing qeren, the horn / leader)). Four (‘arba’) empires (malkuwth – kingdoms, realms, and monarchal or dictatorial governments) comprised of many races from many places (min gowy – from a nation with diverse cultures, religions, and geographic location) were appointed (‘amad – will be assigned), but not with (wa lo’ ba) his authorization or power (koah – his qualifications, ability, might, status, or influence).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:22)

And this is exactly how it happened, right down to the subtle details which describe the cause of death. The empire was subsequently and yet without authorization divided into four kingdoms. Each was comprised of people from many different races and places, but all were dictatorially ruled by men who had served under the Goat. It is almost as if Gabry’el had witnessed the future and was simply reporting what he had seen.

The young man who was educated by Aristotle at twelve, who first led troops into battle at sixteen, who ascended to the throne at twenty after his father’s assassination, died in Babylon at thirty-two following a drunken stupor. In the process of conquering Persia, he had forged an empire from the eastern Mediterranean to India – the largest in the world. While he never lost a battle, he lost control of himself and his army. They mutinied because they were repulsed that he had adopted Persian customs and was pretending to be a god. And perhaps lost in the mythos of his own divinity, he thought he could cheat death and failed to designate a successor. So within a year of his demise, his empire was shattered into four pieces.

The events leading to Alexander’s death are shrouded in mystery, but nonetheless there are some clues available for consideration. We know that in February 324 BCE, Alexander faced a mutiny at the Ganges River and thereupon ordered his men to march through the desert toward Babylon. After crossing the Tigris River, the Macedonian was met by Babylonian priests, who advised him not to enter the city directly because their deity, Bel (meaning “Lord”) had warned them that to do so immediately would be fatal. The Babylonian clerics also advised him against continuing to march westward, because by doing so he would have to look into the setting sun, an indication of a god’s decline. So the Lord’s priests manipulated the Goat into circumnavigating the city, and entering Babylon via the Royal Gate in the western wall, where he would be facing east.

Just as every soul influenced by the Babylonian religion dies, following this clerical advice probably killed Alexander. The religious route required navigating swampy terrain, where it is likely that Alexander contracted malaria or typhoid fever, both of which were common in the swamps surrounding Babylon, and either of which would have killed him. The evidence available to us strongly suggests that several weeks prior to his death, Alexander contracted a deadly pathogen sailing through the stagnant and unsanitary waters which were rife with human waste and were breeding grounds for disease.

According to the University of Maryland School of Medicine report of 1998, Alexander likely died of typhoid fever, which, along with malaria, was the leading cause of death in ancient Babylon. In the week before his demise, historical accounts mention chills, sweats, exhaustion and high fever, typical symptoms of both infectious diseases. The Medical Center’s report states that Alexander suffered “severe abdominal pain, causing him to cry out in agony.”

The reason this is interesting is because both diseases effect the specific symptoms depicted by “shabar – injury caused by membranes rupturing and breaking apart.” And since “breaking and rupturing” is a strange way to depict a man’s death, and especially one who had never lost a battle and who was at the height of his power, an investigation into why shabar was chosen to describe his passing may be enlightening – especially since he would have contracted a deadly pathogen by following the counsel of clerics promoting the Babylonian religion.

Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease – and thus common to wet environments where there is stagnant water. Sporozoites in the saliva of female mosquitoes enter the circulatory system and travel to the liver to reproduce. After a brief dormant period, cells begin to burst. Ruptured host cells literally break out of the liver to invade the victim’s red blood cells. Normally a person’s spleen would destroy such infections, but the parasite circumvents the immune system through adhesive proteins. The body is ravaged, with the bitten individual suffering excruciating physical pain, especially in the joints, and fever so high, it tricks the body into thinking it’s cold, prompting shivering convulsions, which all too often lead to coma and death. I contracted this disease attempting to study the Falasha, African Jews, in Gondar, Ethiopia. The joint pain and freezing fever were so debilitating, my body contorted into a fetal position. I was unable to move, even to speak, and in agony, I wasn’t sure if I wanted to live or die.

Typhoid, on the other hand, is transmitted by the ingestion of water or food contaminated by human feces. Untreated, the fever follows four stages to death. In the first week, body temperature rises slowly. The victim is drained of energy, suffers excruciating headaches, and can develop an annoying cough. White blood cells diminish, further exhausting the individual. In the second week, the fever rises, often peaking around 104oF, followed by an agitated delirium that could easily be mistaken for a drunken stupor. Especially nauseous smelling, pea-soup green diarrhea follows, emaciating the victim. In the third phase, the intestines burst, causing internal hemorrhaging. This internal breaking apart of the digestive system leads to dehydration and death in the fourth stage.

With these depictions in mind, Gabry’el’s use of “shabar – injury caused by membranes rupturing and breaking apart,” to describe the death of Alexander, seems remarkably appropriate. And it is enlightening because just as Christianity is rife with Babylonian influences, it was those very edits which led to the Goat’s demise. He died prematurely because those serving the Lord in the Babylonian religion gave him deadly advice. Rather than walking away from Babylon, as Yahowah requires of His children so that they might live, this arrogant man walked into Babylon and died. In this way, the Greek Alexander, like the Roman Paul, serves as a prototype for the man who will rise to lead mankind away from the truth.

This axis of evil is advanced in this next statement. And in the end, the most lethal weapon will be “babel – confusion,” the deadly pathogen which still flows out of Babylon by way of Christianity.

“Then in the end (wa ba ‘acharyth – during the last days), as their empires (ka malkuwth – as their realms over which they reigned) are concluded (tamam – are finished and ended), the Rebellious and Defiant One (ha pasha’ – the one who leads the revolt, the one who is in opposition, the one who holds a grudge against the ultimate authority, the transgressor (scribed in the participle form and following the definite article, the verb is being used as a descriptive title)) will present himself, appointing himself (‘amad – will take a stand, take charge, and make accusations as) the authorized embodiment of political, religious, and military power (melek – the royal ruler, the head of the government, the ultimate and unchallenged authority). His persona (paneh – his presence and appearance, especially his face and mouth) will be intensely power hungry, greedy and harsh, fierce and fortified (‘az – mighty and forceful, ferociously violent and viciously brutal, enormously covetous and prone to defend himself aggressively against attack), especially skilled in questioning things that aren’t easily resolved, promoting confusion (byn chydah – understanding how to impart a paradigm and to teach and instruct a perspective based upon hidden secrets, difficult questions, dark and perplexing statements, and intriguing conspiracies, effectively talking in riddles (scribed in the hiphil participle, which presents a causative effect, with the Rebellious One becoming known for the shrewd way he will influence and manipulate his audience)).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:23)

The Beast of the Tribulation will be known as the “Rebellious One” and the “Defiant One.” He is, of course, rebelling against Yahowah and is defying the Towrah. And as was the case with Paul, he will appoint himself, presenting himself as if he was chosen by god.

We ought not look at melek simplistically and render it “king.” At the time this was written, as will be the case for the time it will apply, the melek was head of the government, military, and religion. This was true in Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome. It is also invocative of the Tribulation. There will be no distinction between religion and politics, militarism and economics, propaganda and patriotism. They will be deployed in unison to confuse and control.

The personality profile is similar to so many rebellious and defiant, viciously arrogant and egotistical, self-promoting and intensely power-hungry political, religious, and military leaders we have encountered along the way: Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus, Alexander, Julius, Octavian, Paul, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Trajan, Hadrian, Akiba, Commodus, Diocletian, Constantine, and Theodosius. Each of these men were enormously covetous and viciously brutal. But most of all, they were conniving and manipulative, often promoting intriguing conspiracies which fostered confusion. Each and every one of them embodies the persona of the Beast. The more you know about them, the more easily you will recognize him. But more than that, the more we come to learn about these men and the empires they shaped, the better we will understand why Yahowah referred to them as “chywah – beasts.” This exercise serves to amplify God’s animosity toward Babylon, and those influenced by its religious, political, and military agenda. It explains why He has asked us to walk away from these things.

 As we approach this next installment of relevant information regarding the man considered the “Antichrist” by Christians, and the Transgressor (the One who Leads Astray) by Yahowah, we find him either ‘atsam or ‘etsem depending upon how these three Hebrew letters are vocalized. ‘Atsam speaks of “increasing power and vast influence over numerous places and countless people.” It depicts the “deployment of an enormous, crushing, destructive, and threatening force in opposition to others.” But it also means “to shut eyes so tightly a person becomes blind and can no longer see light.” ‘Atsam can even be used to convey “breaking bones.” And that is the tie in to ‘etsem which actually means “bones.” ‘Etsem is deployed to describe the “human skeleton and backbone.” It is found addressing the “essential essence and coordinating substance of something which is vital to life.”

Beyond the rich pallet of possibilities painted by the verb ‘atsam / ‘etsem, the following noun, koah also conveys a wide array of ideas. That which is koah has the “potential to exert a powerful force, to exercise vast authority, and to deploy massive resources and wealth. The koah “shout loudly” and have the “capacity to perform impressive miracles.” The secondary connotations are tangentially related, and they are germane in the context of describing a satanic beast. A koah is a “unclean cold-blooded animal” and especially a “serpentine reptile.” It can depict anything from a “powerful crocodile with its forceful bite,” to a “venomous snake with debilitating poison,” from a “monitor lizard” which kills by wounding and infecting its victim to a “chameleon” which miraculously changes its color to blend into its environment. Also relevant, koah is the root of kahad, which tells us that Satan wants to “conceal” his identity and agenda, “keeping us from knowing” that he is the power behind the Beast so that he can “destroy” the means to know God, “destroying” the Towrah’s credibility, all to “annihilate” as many souls as possible.

Each and every aspect of koah appears chosen to vividly describe one of the most anxiously expected and infamous figures in human history – albeit future history. And koah is deployed twice in the next sentence, further encouraging us to consider its every connotation. So these things known, let’s err on the side of conveying too many of the possibilities rather than too few...

“And this powerful and resourceful cold-blooded serpentine chameleon shall grow immensely powerful (wa ‘atsam / ‘etsem koah – then shouting loudly, he will be capable of exercising crushing and debilitating authority with the potential to blind those whose backs he breaks by deploying vast wealth and substantive human resources, altering his appearance to conceal his identity as serpentine (since it was scribed in the qal perfect, he will actually possess this capacity but it will be short lived)), but not through his own ability, nor exercising his own authority, keeping the source of his power hidden (wa lo’ ba koah – but not of his own accord nor qualifications, concealing his relationship with the serpent, keeping the source of his miraculous power hidden and unknowable to ruin as many as possible).

So by amazing and astounding miraculous wonders (wa pala’ / pale’ – by appearing wonderful, by showing himself to be marvelous, by performing miracles which dumbfound and astonish (the niphal participle depicts a passive means by which the subject is actually known, characterizing him)), he will corrupt, pervert, and destroy (shachath – he will ravage and ruin in humiliating fashion).

And he will assume power deploying overwhelming force, granting prosperity while declaring victory (wa tsalach – with an overwhelming persona, he will be forceful, he will engage swiftly and move rapidly, successfully accomplishing his monetary goals by controlling his subjects (inferred by the hiphil stem) for a short period of time (confirmed by the perfect conjugation)), and he will engage (‘asah – he will act deliberately (qal perfect)) to ravage and ruin in humiliating fashion (shachath – he will corrupt, pervert, and destroy, manipulating them for a constrained period, ensnaring, entrapping, and burying (hiphil perfect)) the powerful and mighty as well as the masses (‘atsuwm – vast numbers of individuals, but especially the empowered, blinding them), but also (wa) the nation and people of the set-apart ones (wa ‘am qadowsh).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:24)

Paul was ‘estem, a chameleon, or more literally, a wolf in sheep’s clothing, pretending to speak for God when actually being adverse to him. He even admitted to such in his letter to Corinth, pretending to blend into his audience, feigning affinity with them to take advantage of them. Following his example, the Beast will act as if a savior, when in fact, he will be a destroyer. Likewise, Satan doesn’t want to be known as who he actually is, the Adversary, but instead to be worshipped as if he were God. The Devil’s Lord persona is indicative of a serpent pretending to be a shepherd. And this similarity between the founder of the Christian religion and the Transgressor is important because the Towrahless One will not be acting on his own initiative. His immense power will come from ha satan.

Paul was similarly inspired and empowered, claiming to have preformed a wide range of “pala’ – amazing and astounding miraculous wonders.” Satan is evil, but hardly impotent. Like all spiritual beings, he wields extraordinary power – as do those he inspires.

Shachath, translated “he will corrupt, pervert, and destroy” above, literally denotes “digging a pit to entrap and burry an unsuspecting individual.” This indicates that the religious rhetoric promoted by the Transgressor will entrap the unwary, sending them either to their grave in death or to the pit, separated from God.

The Beast is going to tsalach, which means that he will be “very aggressive and will strike suddenly.” But more than this, he “will be conceited and will capitalize upon a cult of personality to achieve his goals,” one of which “will be to enrich himself.” Tsalach’s association with “being profitable and prospering” is an essential component of the word’s etymology. This reveals something many have long suspected. The Towrahless One will consolidate his power during an economic collapse, acting swiftly to propose a monetary plan that will create the illusion of “prosperity.”

 I am convinced that he will propose a new, international currency which is exclusively electronic, whereby every transaction can be monitored and controlled. And to lure the masses into accepting it and then embracing his economic alternative, he will forgive all debts, personal, corporate, and national. It will cost him nothing, in that they don’t owe him the money. It will, however, destroy the banking industry, giving him absolute financial control. It will also entice governments to align with him, because most are hopelessly in debt. In addition, I suspect that he will confiscate the savings of the rich, using their deposits as the backing for his currency. In the process, the Beast will eliminate all potential rivals while gaining absolute control over the populous.

It should be no surprise that the Adversary will use his envoy to humiliate the mighty. It is what he has done throughout the ages. The collective political power, economic influence, and religious authority of hell’s inhabitants is impressive. The rich and powerful have been fools to ally themselves with a deceitful hypocrite. As such, the Beast will pervert and corrupt the masses, delivering destruction instead of salvation.

But what are we to make of his influence over the “‘am qadowsh – set-apart nation, people, and/or family?” If ‘am is rendered “nation” or “people,” since the only set-apart nation is Yisra’el and the lone set-apart people are Yisra’elites, the prophetic statement reveals that Satan’s emissary will beguile and pervert Yisra’elites while humbling Yisra’el, corrupting the Promised Land in the process. This will serve to reduce the number of Ya’aqob’s descendants who will ultimately be reconciled upon Yahowah’s return. This potentiality is consistent with other proclamations, whereby God tells us that two out of every three Yisra’elites will die during the Time of Ya’aqob’s Troubles.

However, while Satan can demean members of Yahowah’s set-apart family, he cannot “corrupt or pervert” the children of the Covenant, nor has he the capacity to entrap them spiritually. And yet, he can attack them, and he can kill and bury them physically, albeit temporarily. And the only reason for doing so would be to silence their voices and testimony. This would then put the extended family, country, and people at greater risk.

Based upon this next prophetic statement, if you want to know what the Beast will be like, read Paul’s letters. They may be indistinguishable.

“And by way of his cunning interpretations and explanations (wa ‘al sekel – so through his crafty discretion and clever principles), he will become a powerful and influential force for deceit and deception, deliberately and successfully misleading (wa tsalach mirmah – he will rush to prosper, even thrive through aggressive and overpowering treachery and sweeping dishonesty, immediately providing a false impression and beguiling perspective).

With his actions (ba yad – through his hand, power, influence, and deeds) and in his heart (wa ba lebab – according to his perceptions of himself), he will exalt himself, arrogantly boasting (gadal – he will claim extraordinarily high status for himself, glorifying and promoting himself), while easily and carelessly (shalwah – profitably and thoughtlessly while perpetrating a grand delusion regarding prosperity) he will manipulate and corrupt many (shachath rabym – he will consistently ravage and pervert the masses, and destroy multitudes forever in a humiliating fashion, ensnaring, entrapping, and burying vast numbers of people  (hiphil imperfect)).

Against the Almighty’s (wa ‘al) Prince of Princes (sar sarym – Leader of Leaders and Most Important Official), he will appoint himself (‘amad – he will position himself, standing before to make accusations). And yet in another (wa ba ‘ephec – but with another) hand (yad), he will be wounded (shabar – he will be injured and broken, violently ruptured).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:25)

By consistently misquoting Yahowah and by deliberately removing His words from their context, Paul misinterpreted most every important aspect of God’s plan, replacing His Torah instructions with his own errant explanations. By doing so, Paul became the most influential person who ever lived. His deliberate deceit successfully misled billions upon billions of souls. While many have been egotistical, few have attempted to justify their megalomania, and yet that is exactly what oozes out of Paul’s letters. Without conscience or concern, Paul manipulated and corrupted more people than anyone in human history.

He has, however, had a rival: Muhammad, at least in the number of people beguiled and the degree of unfounded boasting. But the founder of the Islamic religion was as dumb as the Black Stone that represented his god. No one in their right mind would consider his interpretations or explanations clever or crafty. They were and remain stupid.

In the end, the Beast will rise above Paul and Muhammad. Largely as a result of the increased population, with seven-billion humans inhabiting the planet, and vastly superior communications capabilities, he will lure most everyone to Satan. And he will deploy Paul’s strategy, mimicking the founder of the Christian religion in style, personality, and content.

Most are unaware that Paul pitted himself against the Ma’aseyah Yahowsha’, but it is nonetheless true. He only cited His words once, and that was a misquote. Pauline Doctrine is the antithesis of the Sermon on the Mount. After contradicting something God had conveyed, the contrarian would consistently write: “but I, Paul, say....” And while there are a thousand examples I could cite, consider Yahowsha’s “Call no one on earth your father; you have but one Father in heaven,” (Matthew 23:9) with Paul’s “Even if you should have countless guides to Christ, you do not have many fathers, for I became your father in Christ Jesus thorough the gospel.” (1 Corinthians 4:15) Beyond bestowing a title upon himself that Yahowsha’ said should never be used in this context, Paul was actually elevating himself above Yahowsha’, because He is the Son, not the Father.

The Beast will be similarly bold. He will claim to be god and mankind’s savior. Like Paul, he will appoint himself. Like Paul, he will challenge Yahowsha’, presenting his words as gospel. And like Paul, he will be wounded and recover, claiming this as one of many miracles.

On the surface, this next statement iterates the obvious...

“And the vision (wa mare’ah – the comprehensible appearance and phenomenon) of the evening (ha ‘ereb) and of the morning (wa boqer) that he has been told (‘asher ‘amar) are true (‘emeth – are reliable and trustworthy, dependable and honest, certain and enduring). And you should seal (huw’ wa ‘atah catham – but you should conceal and close up) the revelation (chazown – the prophetic communication from God) for many days to come (ky la yowmym rabym).’” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:26)

Other than to affirm that God is adverse to the influence of Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome, these prophecies wouldn’t have been much help to anyone for a very long time. In fact, apart from understanding Yahowah’s animosity toward religious, political, and militant institutions, they are only marginally beneficial today.

I don’t expect to encounter the Beast. I’ve long since walked away from the things God loathes. So for the past decade, I’ve devoted my attention to correctly and completely conveying Yahowah’s core testimony so that those of you who want to know Him have that opportunity. I’ve chosen to focus on His Towrah Teaching, His Covenant Family, His Invitations to be Called Out, and His fulfilled prophecies so that you can come to know Him and trust Him as I have done.

And for this past decade, I’ve avoided future prophecy. Unless something is on the brink of fulfillment, and the fulfillment is now inevitable, future predictions may tickle curiosities, but they do not prove Yahowah’s existence or that He authored the statements – which is the purpose of prophecy. Additionally, as a general rule, I’ve found that there is less teaching associated with future predictions than past assessments. God reveals His purpose, nature, and plan throughout the prophetic landscape, but less so with those associated with the last days. The reason, I suspect, is that the only hope for those attempting to outlive the Beast is to return to the basics, becoming fluent in the Torah, Covenant, and Invitations. Subtle revelations and illuminating insights will be vastly less important than mere survival – a condition predicated upon and brought about by the Torah, Covenant, and Invitations. So if I’m right, even during the last days, Yahowah’s core message will be substantially more vital, outweighing the benefit of recognizing the Adversary.

But, there was an inference in this last statement which stirs my enthusiasm. Most of what Dany’el saw dealt with the rise and fall of empires long past. And so there are a very limited number of reasons why such revelations might be relevant during our time. And first among them is that these depictions reveal the affinities between the Adversary and the human institutions from which Yahowah has asked us to disassociate. By recognizing that which God says is bad for us and avoiding those things, we live longer and more fulfilling lives.

Additionally, the the curiosity surrounding the fall of man, the “Antichrist,” “Armageddon,” “Conspiracy Theories,” and “Doom’s Day Preparations” is so wide spread and entrenched, by presenting what Yahowah has to say about the Last Days, some of the curious may be drawn to the Covenant.

The darkness is depressing, but God’s light remains available to those who seek Him. We, like Dany’el, ought to be affected by all of this. What we have witnessed is appalling. And yet this is what man has done to himself lo these many years. Man apart from God is a miserable being. But there is a remedy – Yahowah. So no matter how bleak the circumstance, we are called to stand up and make a difference by sharing His revelation.

“Then (wa), I (‘any), Dany’el (Dany’el – God Judges and Vindicates), came to be and grow faint (hayah wa chalah) for days (yowmym). Then (wa) I arose and stood up (quwm – I was restored, confirmed, and established) as I engaged in and contributed to (wa ‘asah ‘eth – and I acted upon and benefited from, I arranged in order and celebrated) the work of the spiritual messenger (mala’kah – the useful and beneficial message associated with the service of a heavenly representative; from mal’ak – spiritual messenger and heavenly envoy, therefore addressing the purpose of Gabry’el’s explanations on behalf) of the Head of the Kingdom (ha melek – of the King and the Ultimate Authority; from malak – to reign and to exercise the functions of a leader (acknowledging the One whom Gabry’el served and the Father of the Prince of Princes)). But I was appalled (wa shamem – I was dismayed and discouraged) by the vision (‘al ha mare’ah – as a result of the patterns and appearances in the revelation) where understanding was lacking (wa ‘ayn byn – when without comprehension).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 8:27)

There is the remote possibility that Dany’el simply got out of bed and did Belsha’tsar’s bidding. But considering the restorative properties of quwm, and the fact Dany’el was this repulsive king’s slave, such a supposition would be an odd fit. This is especially true when we recognize that the attitude associated with quwm is to stand upright, the antithesis bowing before a magistrate.

Furthermore, mala’kah is the perfect word to deploy in connection with Gabry’el’s visit. He is Yahowah’s spiritual messenger, a malak, dispatched to convey and clarify Yahowah’s revelation. That is his primary purpose. Therefore, there is every reason to see melek in this context addressing the One to whom Gabry’el reported.

The reason for Dany’el’s distress should be obvious. Gabry’el explained the events which would transpire in the short and long term, including the rise and fall of Persia and Greece. But he did not elaborate on the final Transgressor, whom Dany’el would have recognized as the most vicious and enduring Beast in the previous revelation. And just knowing that individuals and institutions would act this belligerently and aggressively against the God and the people he loved would have been nauseating. And yet no matter how dismal the future appeared, Dany’el had a job and he did what we should do: stand up and engage.

Let’s review where we have been throughout this voyage in time and consider the implications for our world.

“In the first year of (ba chad shanah la) Belsha’tsar (Belsha’tsar), the king of (melek) Babel - Confusion (Babel), Dany’el (Dany’el) saw (chazah) a revealing vision (chelem) and (wa) supernatural revelations (chazuw) in his mind (re’sh) while upon his bed (‘al mishkab). Thereupon (‘adayn), in (ba) the prophetic revelation (chelem), he was prompted to write a complete copy of (katab) the things (milah) being communicated (‘amar). (7:1)

I, Dany’el (Dany’el), responded (‘anah) and then said (wa ‘amar), ‘I am able to see (hawah chazah), with my sensory perceptions, the vision (ba chazuw) during night (‘im lyly ‘a).’ And then (wa), behold, right there (‘aruw), four (‘arba’) spirits (ruwach) out of the heavens (shamaym ‘a) churning up (guwah) the approach to the Great Sea (la yam ‘a rab ‘a). (7:2) Then four (wa ‘arba’) great beasts (rab chyuwah) were coming up out of the Sea (calaq min yam ‘a), being transformed and different (shanah) one from the other (da’ min da’). (7:3)

The first (qadmay ‘a) was similar to (ka) a lion (‘aryeh) but with (wa) wings (gaph) of (dy) an eagle (nashar) upon her (la). I kept watching (hawah chazah) while (‘ad) her wings were plucked off (marat gap). But then (wa) she was lifted up (natal) from the earth (min ‘ara’ ‘a) and (wa) upon (‘al) feet (ragal) like a human (k ‘anash), she was established and made to stand upright (quwm). Then (wa) a human (‘anash) heart and thought processes (labab) were given to her (yahab la). (7:4)

And then behold (wa ‘aruw) another (‘achoran) beast (chyuwah), a second one (tinyan), actually resembling (damah la) a bear (dob). And on one side (wa la satar chad), she was established (quwm). And (wa) three (telat) ribs (‘ala’) were in her mouth (ba pum) between her teeth (ben shen shen). And (wa) thusly (ken) they said to her (‘amar la), ‘Rise up (quwm) and devour (‘akal) an abundance (sagyi’) of human flesh (basar).’ (7:5)

At this same site (ba danah ‘atar), I kept focused and observant (hawah chazah) and then, behold (wa ‘aruw), another (‘achoran), this one resembling (ka) a leopard (namar). And upon her (wa la) were four wings (‘arba’ gaph) such as (dy) a bird (owp). They were on her back side (‘al gab gab). There were also four heads (wa ‘arba’ re’sh), all associated with this awesome beast (la chywah ‘a). And governmental dominion (wa shalatan) was imparted (yahab) to her (la). (7:6)

In this same place (ba danah ‘atar) I remained observant (hawah chazah) during the night vision (ba lyly chazuw ‘a), and right there, behold (wa ‘aruw): the fourth and final (raby’ay raby’ay) awesome and monstrous beast (chywah), the most fearsome and frightening, yet also revered and respected by some, dazzlingly beautiful yet terrible and terrorizing, often longing for revenge (dachal), horrifying and appalling, awful and evil, dreadful and horrific, sickening and gruesome (wa ‘eymatan), yet (wa) exceedingly and preeminently (yatyr) powerful with the prodigious capacity to destroy (taqyph).

With (wa) her teeth comprised of iron (shen dy parzel la), multitudes, including the largest, most numerous and powerful (rab), she devoured, devastated, and destroyed (‘akal), crushing the remainder (daqaq sha’ar ‘a) with her feet (ba ragal) by trampling them down violently (raphats) under foot (ba ragal). But (wa) this one was different (hyi’ shanah) from all the other (min kol) beasts (chywah ‘a) which preceded her (dy qodam). And (wa) ten (‘asar) horns, indicative of leaders and nations (qeren), were upon her (la). (7:7)

I was thinking about, trying to understand (hawah sakal) the horns (ba qeren a’) and then, behold (wa ‘aluw), another and final (‘achoran) horn (qeren), a smaller one of lower status (za’eyr), came up between them and among them (celaq ben). And three (wa talat) among (min) the initial group of horns (qadmay qeren ‘a) were de-horned (‘aqar ‘aqar) from before (qodam qodam). Then behold (wa ‘aluw), eyes (‘ayn), like the eyes of a human (ka ‘ayn ‘enash) in this unique horn (ba qeren ‘a da’) along with (wa) a mouth (pum) speaking powerfully and abundantly as an esteemed authority (malal rab). (7:8) I continued to watch (hawah chazah) while (‘ad) those thrones (dy karatse’) were set in place (ramah).” (Dany’el / God Judges and Vindicates / Daniel 7:9)

“Then (wa) the Ancient of Days (‘athyq yowm) sat down (yatib). His clothing (labuwsh) appeared like (ka) brilliant white snow (talag chuwr), and the hair on His head (wa sa’ar re’sh) was like (ka) pure and perfect lamb’s wool (naqe’ ‘amar). His throne (karase’) was ablaze (shabyb dy nuwr) with a rotating structure (galgal) gloriously glowing with radiant energy (nuwr dalaq). (7:9) A stream (nahar) of fire (dy nuwr) flows forth (nagad). And (wa) it appears and comes out (napaq) from His presence (qodam). Thousands upon thousands upon thousands (‘alap ‘alap ‘alap) serve Him, attending to His affairs (shamash), with very, very, very many (wa ribow ribow ribow) before Him (qodam). They stood (quwm) while the Judge (dyn ‘a) sat (yathib). Then (wa) the records of the Instructor (tsaphar) were opened (phatach). (7:10)

I continued to be observant (hawah chazah) in this regard because (ba ‘adayn min) the voice conveying (qal) the abundant (rab) words, affairs, and decrees (milah) of the horn (‘a dy qeren ‘a) was speaking (malal). I kept watching until I came to realize (hawah chazah ‘ad) that the monstrous beast (chywah ‘a) was slain (dy qatal), and the body (wa gashem) perished (‘abad), so (wa) it was given (yahab) to (la) the fire and an offering to be consumed (yaqedah ‘esha’). (7:11) Then with the remainder (wa sha’ar) of the beasts (chywah ‘a), governmental dominion (shaletan) was taken away from them (‘adah). But (wa) an extension of life (‘arkah ba chay) was extended to them (yahab la) until (‘ad) an appointed time (zaman), and then a year’s time (wa ‘idan). (7:12)

I continued to closely examine and carefully consider (hawah chazah) the things associated with the supernatural revelation (ba chazuw) during the night (lyly ‘a), and then behold (wa ‘aruw): accompanied by (‘im) a cloud, making a visual appearance (‘anan) from the heavens (shamaym ‘a), like (ka), the Son of Man (bar ‘anash), He was (hawah) arriving (‘atah).

And meanwhile (‘ad), the Ancient of Days (‘athyq yowm a’) reached out (mata’) going before His presence (qodam) presenting Him (qareb). (7:13) And to Him (wa la) was given (yahab) dominion (shalatan), glory (wa yaqar), and sovereignty (malkuw). And all the people (wa kol ‘am ‘a) of the nations (‘umah a’) and the languages (wa lishan ‘a), as a symbol of His purpose (la), serve (palach). Absolute authorization, dominion, and authority (shalatan shalatan) forever (‘alam) such that it will never cease (dy la’ ‘adah) and His sovereignty (malkuw) which (dy) shall not perish (la’ chabal). (7:14)

My Spirit (ruwach), She was troubled (karah). As for me, Dany’el (‘anah Dany’el), inside and sheathed (ba gaw nidnah), the revelations (chazuw) in my mind (re’sh) were disturbing and troubling to me (bahal). (7:15) I approached (qareb ‘al) a particular individual from (chad min) those standing (quwm ‘a) so I could request from him the true and accurate meaning (wa yatsyb ‘a ba’ah min) regarding all of this (‘al kol danah). And he said to me (wa ‘amar la) that the interpretation and explanation (wa pashar) of these things (milah ‘a) he would make known to me so that I would understand (yada’). (7:16)

‘These mighty beasts (‘ilyn chywah ‘a rab ‘a) are four in number, representing four (dy ‘inuwn ‘arba’ ‘arba’) kings / kingdoms (melek), which will arise (quwm) from the earth (min ‘ara’ ‘a). (7:17) But the Set-Apart Ones (wa qadysh), they will receive (qabal) the kingdom (malkuw) of the Most High (‘elyown). And they will inherit royal authority and own the kingdom (chacan malkuw ‘a) throughout eternity, a duration of time that is forever and ever (‘ad ‘alam wa ‘ad ‘alam ‘alam ‘a).’ (7:18)

Then, therefore (‘adayn), I wanted (tsabah) to be certain (la yatsab) regarding (‘al) the fourth (raby’ay ‘a) monstrous beast (chywah) which was different and changed (dy hawah shanah) from all of the others (min kol kol), awesomely beautiful and yet hideously terrifying (yatyr dachal) with imposing teeth (shen shen) akin to iron (dy parzel) and claws (wa taphar) of bronze (nachash), it devoured (‘akal), crushing (daqaq) the rest (sha’ar), violently trampling (raphac) with its paws (ba ragal). (7:19)

And also (wa) concerning (‘al) were the ten horns (‘asar qeren ‘a) which were on its head (dy ba re’sh), and then another in the end (wa ‘achoran) which grew (dy calaq). And then (wa) the three (talat) which fell, falling away right before its presence (naphal wa naphal min qodam qodam). And this one horn had eyes and a mouth (wa qeren ‘a diken wa la wa peh) to speak profusely (malal rab). Its appearance (wa chazuw) was greater (rab) than its companions (min chabrah). (7:20)

I continued looking (hawah chazah), and this horn (wa qeren a’ diken) was engaged in war (‘abad qarab) against (‘im) the Set-Apart Ones (qadysh) and prevailing over them (wa yakil la) until (‘ad dy) the Ancient of Days (‘athyq yowm a’) arrived (‘atah). (7:21) And then (wa) He rendered and executed (yahab) the judgment (dyn ‘a) in favor or and on behalf of (la) the Set-Apart Ones (qadysh) of the Most High (‘elyown). And at the specific appointed time (wa zaman ‘a), He approached, reached out, and issued His decree (matsa’) so that (wa) the Set-Apart Ones (qadysh) inherited (chacan) the kingdom (malkuw). (7:22)

‘Therefore,’ he said (‘amar), ‘The fourth (raby’ay ‘a) beast (chywah ‘a), which represents the fourth of the four kingdoms (raby’ay ‘a raby’ay ‘a malkuw) to arise (hawah) in the world (ba ‘ara’ ‘a), which will be different from (dy shanah min) all the other kingdoms (kol malkuw ‘a), will devour, devastating (‘akal) the entire world (kol ‘ara’ ‘a), and will trample it down, destroying (wa duwsh) and then crushing it (daqaq). (7:23)

Regarding the ten horns (wa qeren ‘a ‘asar), out of this kingdom (min malkuw) the kings (‘asar melek) will arise (quwm), and then much later another (wa ‘achoran) will take his stand (quwm) at the end (‘achary). And he (wa huw’) will be different (shanah) from the previous ones (qadmay ‘a), so then (wa) humbling (shaphal) three kings (tahath kings). (7:24) And his decisions, decrees, and commands (wa milah), accordingly (la), will be in slight conflict with and in subtle opposition to (tsad) the Most High God’s (‘ilay ‘a ‘ilay ‘a) statements (malal).

And regarding (wa la) the Set-Apart Ones (qadysh) of the Most High (‘elyown), he will oppress and persecute them, trying to make them appear obsolete (balah) while (wa) he strives, attempting (cabar) to change (shanah) the appointed times (zaman a) and the Towrah (wa dath). And he will place them under his authority (wa yahab ba yad) for a time, times, and half a time (‘ad ‘idan ‘idanyn wa palag ‘idan). (7:25)

And then (wa) the Judge will sit and execute judgment (dyn ‘a yatib) and mastery and power (wa shalatan) will be taken away from him (‘adah) to the extent that they are completely eradicated (la shamad) and perish (wa la ‘abad) to the end of time (‘ad coph ‘a). (7:26) And the whole kingdom (malkuw ‘a), the entire realm (shalatan ‘a), and the highest status (rabuw a’) of the governing bodies (dy malkuw) under the entirety (tachath kol) of the heavens (shamayn) will be given (yahab) to a family (‘am) Set Apart (qadysh) of the Most High (‘elyown). His kingdom and sovereign power (malkuw) is a kingdom, power, and reign (malkuw) which is forever and eternal (‘alam). And all (wa kol) of the governments (shalatan ‘a), to approach Him (la), they will serve (palah) and they will listen (shama’).’ (7:27)

Here, at this time (‘ad kah), was the conclusion (cowph a’) of this communication (dy milah a’). As for me (‘anah), Dany’el (Dany’el), I thought about everything, contemplating and reasoning to the greatest extent possible (sagyi’ rayown). I was alarmed and dismayed (bahal). And then (wa) the dazzling brightness and splendor (zyw) changed (shanah) around me (‘al), and the characterization of the word (milah ‘a) I kept all of the information (natar) in my heart (ba labab).” (Dany’el 7:28)

“In the third year (ba shalysh shanah) of the reign of (la malkuwth) Belsha’tsar (Belsha’tsar), the king (melek), a communication (dabar) appeared (ra’ah) to me (‘el ‘any), Dany’el (Dany’el), after (‘achar) the one seen by me (ha ra’ah ‘el) in the beginning (ba ha tachilah). (8:1)

And (wa) while I was viewing in the prophetic revelation (ra’ah ba ha chazown)m it came to exist (wa ba hayah) as I was looking (ba ra’ah) that I was in (wa ‘any ba) the citadel (ha byrah) of Shuwshan (Shuwshan), which is in (‘asher ba) the Province of (madynah) ‘Eylam (‘Eylam). Then I saw (wa ra’ah) that I, Myself, was (wa ‘any hayah) in the prophetic revelation (ba ha chazown) at the waterway (‘al ‘uwbal) of ‘Uwlay (‘Uwlay). (8:2)

Next (wa) I lifted up (nasa’) my eyes (‘ayn) and I was observant (ra’ah), and behold (wa hineh), a large Ram (‘ayl rahab), one (‘echad) standing in front of the stream (‘amad la paneh ha ‘uwbal). And upon him were (wa la) two horns (tsemed qerenym). And the horns (wa ha qerenym) were high, haughty, and conceited (gaboah). But the one (wa ha ‘echad) was higher, more self-exalting, and power craving (gaboah) than the other (min ha seny). And the more arrogant and domineering (wa ha qaboah) ascended (‘alah) from the former in the end (ba ha ‘acharown). (8:3)

I saw (ra’ah), accordingly (‘eth), the Ram (ha ‘ayl) attacking and goring (nagah) westward (yam), northward (wa tsaphown), also to the south (wa negeb). And none of the beasts could stand (wa kol chayah lo’ ‘amad) in its presence (la paneh). None were spared (wa ‘ayn natsal) from his influence (min yad). So it acted (wa ‘asah) as it pleased him (ka ratsown). And he was exalted and became great (wa gadal). (8:4)

And so as I, myself, began to comprehend (wa ‘any hayah byn), then behold (wa hineh), a Goat (tsaphyr) was coming (bow’) from the west (min ha ma’arab) before (‘al) the presence (paneh) of the entire region (kol ha ‘erets), and yet not even striking (wa ‘ayn naga’) the Land (ba ha ‘erets). And the Goat’s (wa ha tsaphyr) horn (qeren) had a prominent feature (chazuwth) between his eyes (byn ‘ayn). (8:5)

Then (wa) he came (wa bow’) up to (‘ad) the Ram (ha ‘ayl) possessing (ba’al) the two horns (qerenym) which (‘asher) I saw (ra’ah) standing (‘amad) before the presence of (la paneh) the waterway (‘uwbal). And it ran (wa ruwts) at him (‘al) in powerful venomous anger (ba chemah koah). (8:6)

And I witnessed him (wa ra’ah) approaching and making contact with (naga’ ‘etsel) the Ram (‘ayl), and he was bitterly furious at him (wa marar ‘el). And so he struck the Ram (wa nakah ‘eth ha ‘ayl), and thereby broke (wa shabar ‘eth) both of his horns (shanaym qeren). And in the Ram (wa ba ha ‘ayl), there was insufficient capability, power, and resources (lo’ hayah koah) to withstand his presence (la ‘amad la paneh) but even so (wa) he was overthrown, humbled, and hurled down to (wa shalak) earth (‘erets). And he will be trampled and tread upon by him (wa ramac). The ram (wa ‘ayl) was not be spared from his hand (lo’ hayah natsal la). (8:7)

And the great Goat (wa tsaphyr ha ‘ez) grew and was exalted, magnifying himself (gadal), until at the very highest extent of his war plunder (‘ad me’od), at a time when his empire was the vastest (wa ka ‘atsam). Then the great horn / leader (ha gadowl ha qeren) was broken (shabar). And four (wa ‘arba’) conspicuously appeared (chazuwth), offered up and ascending (‘alah) in its place (tachath), extending toward (la) the four winds (‘arba’ ruwach) of the sky (shamaym). (8:8)

And out of the one (wa min ha ‘echad), because of them (min), he came forth (min yatsa’) as one horn / a solitary individual ruler (qeren ‘echad) from the lowly and little (min tsa’yr). And it grew great (wa gadal), preying upon the remnant while confiscating their remaining wealth, arrogantly bragging in the process (yether) toward the south (‘el ha negeb) and to the east (wa ‘el ha mizrach), and toward the desirable and glorious (wa ‘el ha tsaby). (8:9)

And it boasted, exalting itself (wa gadal) as far as and up to the eternal (‘ad) spiritual implements of (tsaba’) the spiritual realm (ha shamaym), then causing them to fall (wa naphal) to earth (‘erest) from (min) those serving as spiritual implements (tsaba’) and from the light of heavenly powers (wa min ha kowkab). As an aggressor seeking to profane and destroy, it brought great harm to them (wa ramac). (8:10)

And even up to the eternal, preying upon the witness of (wa ‘ad) the Prince (sar) of the spiritual implements (ha tsaba’), he was boastful and arrogant (gadal). Then from Him, separating himself (wa min), he rebelled against, exalting himself above (ruwm) the enduring means to reach out, perfect, and grow forevermore (ha tamyd). And so (wa) the predetermined basis and firmly established site (makown) of His Sanctuary (miqdash) was totally cast aside (shalak).” (8:11)

And the spiritual implements (wa tsaba’) were given over to the control of another (nathan) against (‘al) the enduring means to reach out, perfect, and grow forevermore (ha tamyd). In rebellion (ba pesha’), they were certainly cast down (shalak ‘emeth) to the earth (‘erets). And they engaged (wa ‘asah) to accomplish their goal (wa tsalah). (8:12)

And then I heard (wa shama’) one of the Set Apart (‘echad qadowsh) speaking (dabar), and he asked (‘amar) of (la) the One specifically and uniquely Set-Apart (‘echad qadowsh la ha palimony), who spoke the Word (ha dabar), ‘For how long will this revelation regarding (matay chazown ‘ad) the enduring means to reach out, perfect, and grow forevermore (ha tamyd) and this revolting rebellion and transgression (wa ha pesha’) which stupefies and devastates (shamem) last (matay), giving over (nathan) the set apart (qodesh) and (wa) the spiritual implements (tsaba’) to be tread upon (miramac)?’ (8:13)

And He said to me (wa ‘amar ‘ely), ‘Until the sunsets and the sunrises over (‘ad ‘ereb ‘boqer) two-thousand three hundred times (‘eleph shalyshy me’ah), then the set apart (qodesh) will be completely vindicated (tsadaq).’ (8:14)

And while I, Dany’el, was seeing and considering (wa hayah ba ra’ah ‘any Dany’el) the revelation (‘eth ha chazown), I desired and sought (wa baqas) understanding (bynah). And behold (wa hineh), present and standing before me (‘amad la neged), was someone similar in appearance (ka mara’ah) to an exceptional individual being (geber). (8:15)

I heard the voice (wa shama’ qowl) associated with a person (‘adam) providing understanding by making connections within (bayn) ‘Uwlay (‘Uwlay) and he, Gabry’el (wa Gabry’el), provided an invitation to be called out and to meet (qara’) by him saying (wa ‘amar), ‘Understand, making informed and reasonable connections (byn) to approach according to this (la halaz ‘eth), the pattern of clear and comprehensible revelations (ha mara’ah).’ (8:16)

And he came (wa bow’), positioning himself right beside me (‘omed ‘etsel), but in the process of coming to me (wa ba bow’), I became terrified (ba’ath), and so I fell prostrate on my face (wa naphal ‘al panah). Then he said to me (wa ‘amar ‘el), ‘Use the ability to closely examine and carefully consider information to comprehend, to teach and instruct, making connections which lead to understanding (byn), child of mankind (ben ‘adam) because indeed (ky), the prophetic revelation (ha chazown) is for events transpiring toward the end of time (la ‘eth qets).’ (8:17)

Then in the process of sharing the Word with me (wa ba dabar ‘im) while I was lying face down on the ground (radam ‘al paneh ‘erets), he touched me (naga’ ba) and he helped me stand (wa ‘amad), with me upright alongside God at my assigned post (‘al ‘omed). (8:18)

And he said (wa ‘amar), ‘Look at me (hineh). I will help you come to know and understand (yada’), accordingly (‘eth), that which will occur (‘asher hayah) during the final period (ba ‘acharyth) of abominable denunciations and extreme indignation (ha za’am), which is surely and truly forthcoming leading up to (ky la) the final Appointed Meeting Time (qets mow’ed). (8:19)

The ram (ha ‘ayl) which you saw (‘asher ra’ah), the Lord of (ba’al) the two horns (ha qerenym), are the kings (melek) of Maday / Media (Maday) and (wa) Parac / Persia (Parac). (8:20)

And the goat (wa ha tsaphyr), the powerful horned male (ha sa’yr), is the king (melek) of Yowan / Ionian Greece (Yowan). The great horn (wa ha qeren ha gadowl) which is positioned between (‘asher byn) its eyes (‘ayn) is the first and foremost (huw’ ha ri’shown) king (melek). (8:21)

And he was injured by internal membranes rupturing (wa ha shabar). And then four presented and appointed themselves (wa ‘amad ‘arba’) in his place (tachath). Four (‘arba’) empires (malkuwth) comprised of many races from many places (min gowy) were appointed (‘amad), but not with (wa lo’ ba) his authorization or power (koah). (8:22)

Then in the end (wa ba ‘acharyth), as their empires (ka malkuwth) are concluded (tamam), the Rebellious and Defiant One (ha pasha’) will present himself, appointing himself (‘amad) the authorized embodiment of political, religious, and military power (melek). His persona (paneh) will be intensely power hungry, greedy and harsh, fierce and fortified (‘az), especially skilled in questioning things that aren’t easily resolved, promoting confusion (byn chydah). (8:23)

And this powerful and resourceful cold-blooded serpentine chameleon shall grow immensely powerful (wa ‘atsam / ‘etsem koah), but not through his own ability, nor exercising his own authority, keeping the source of his power hidden (wa lo’ ba koah). So by amazing and astounding miraculous wonders (wa pala’ / pale’), he will corrupt, pervert, and destroy (shachath).

And he will assume power deploying overwhelming force, granting prosperity while declaring victory (wa tsalach), and he will engage (‘asah) to ravage and ruin in humiliating fashion (shachath) the powerful and mighty as well as the masses (‘atsuwm), but also (wa) the nation and people of the set-apart ones (wa ‘am qadowsh). (8:24)

And by way of his cunning interpretations and explanations (wa ‘al sekel), he will become a powerful and influential force for deceit and deception, deliberately and successfully misleading (wa tsalach mirmah). With his actions (ba yad) and in his heart (wa ba lebab), he will exalt himself, arrogantly boasting (gadal), while easily and carelessly (shalwah) he will manipulate and corrupt many (shachath rabym). Against the Almighty’s (wa ‘al) Prince of Princes (sar sarym), he will appoint himself (‘amad). And yet in another (wa ba ‘ephec) hand (yad), he will be wounded (shabar). (8:25)

And the vision (wa mare’ah) of the evening (ha ‘ereb) and of the morning (wa boqer) that he has been told (‘asher ‘amar) are true (‘emeth). And you should seal (huw’ wa ‘atah catham) the revelation (chazown) for many days to come (ky la yowmym rabym).’ (8:26)

Then (wa), I (‘any), Dany’el (Dany’el), came to be and grow faint (hayah wa chalah) for days (yowmym). Then (wa) I arose and stood up (quwm) as I engaged in and contributed to (wa ‘asah ‘eth) the work of the spiritual messenger (mala’kah) of the Head of the Kingdom (ha melek). But I was appalled (wa shamem) by the vision (‘al ha mare’ah) where understanding was lacking (wa ‘ayn byn).” (Dany’el 8:27)

There is an old adage, one implied by this prophecy. If you want to predict the future, study the past. And like unto it, the best indicator of future behavior is previous conduct. Through this review of the prophet’s future and depiction of our past, we not only better understand what has occurred, we now know what will transpire. The more closely we examined the flaws inherent within these ancient human institutions – from Babylon to Rome and its Church –  the more clearly we came to see our own future history.

And while the brightest and most glorious light in the universe awaits us, the next two decades are going to be exceedingly dark. The earth will soon witness the worst man has to offer.